Dublin is the capital city of Ireland. It covers 115 square kilometers on the east coast of the country. The city, called Baile Atha Cliath in Irish, is situated in the Leinster province. The UN World Urbanization Prospects estimated its population for the year 2020 as 1,228,179 people. Dublin Port is the premium port of the country which adds value to its financial and commercial importance.

In 2015 the city ranked 41 among the most tourists visited cities by Euromonitor International ranks. The city is well known for its beatific landscape and exhibition of artwork. The home to the National Museum of artwork lies at the mouth of River Liffey and is flanked by a Wicklow mountain range in the south.

Data and Facts

  • The population of Dublin includes more than 250,000 non-Irish nationals. And the foreign-born can be further analyzed as 23% of the non-Irish people are from the United States, 4% are from Lithuania and 13.5% people from Poland. This data was accurate for the year 2011.
  • In the first quarter of 2019, 706,000 people were reported as employed. 31.7% of Ireland’s working population is settled in Dublin 
  • In the second quarter of 2019, the Dublin port witnessed a decline for the first time since 2013.
  • The unemployment rate for the third quarter of 2019 was 4.4%.  and the city ranked 5th in the FDI Fintech Location of the Future for the year 2019-2020 
  • Every day around 500000 people travel within the city. In the third quarter of 2019, the passenger trips in Dublin surpassed by 60 million. 
  • In 2018, the Financial Times positioned Dublin as Europe’s second most attractive city for foreign direct investment.


The city is the headquarters for Ireland’s government departments. Leinster House is the venue where the houses of the Irish parliament (Dail and Senate) meet. Dublin comprises of 12 constituencies, and its government is divided into two branches- legislative and executive. Where the city manager carries out the executive functions and the Dublin City Council is responsible for the legislation. The Dublin Regional Authority coordinates, reviews and monitors the functions discharged by the City Council and the three counties.


In the third quarter of 2019 the unemployment rate recorded the lowest percentage in 14 years, that is, 4.4%. Employments were generated majorly by the technology (ICT), insurance and real estate industries. In the first nine months of 2019, the Dublin airport reported 24.5 million passengers showing a growth of 5.4% from the last year. As the transportation industry prospers, public transport trips increased by 8.7% in the city. In the fourth quarter, the Dublin MARKIT PMI also recovered to 53.7 due to expansion in manufacturing. Following are the major industries contributing to the low rates of unemployment, and higher rates of economic growth-

  • Information, communication and technology industry offers 9% of the total jobs in the city.
  • Health and social care industries comprise 13% of the total employed people in Dublin
  • Professional services represent 8.5% of the city’s employment
  • Art and recreation industry report 6% of the total employment
  • Logistics and storage offer 5.5% of the total employment.

The diverse and large-scale economic environment attracts foreign direct investment and numerous leading world companies to settle in Dublin. 250 global financial institutions, 50% of the world’s top 50 banks, top 5 global software companies and 18 of the world’s top 25 med-tech companies, all these reside in Dublin. In the FDI Fintech locations of the future 2019/2020, you will find Dublin in the first position due to its FDI performance, innovation, economic potential, connectivity, attractiveness, and cost-effectiveness.

Business environment

Dublin features a diverse economy with variegated business. And the business environment is known as friendly and welcoming. Dublin encourages start-ups with its low bureaucratic and low tax environment. The city also has a Dublin commissioner for start-ups. The start-ups get easy access to quality staff, suppliers experienced entrepreneurs, research institutes, investors and other development support services in the city of Dublin. The city is home to the world-class creative environment that nurtures and supports the development of innovative technology, that is named the CeADAR. 


In 2004 a tram system spurred functioning from the ST. Stephen’s Green in the heartland of Dublin. In 2006 the city opened the Dublin Port Tunnel connecting the port and the national motorway network. The train service running along the coast is named the DART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit). Furthermore, the city comprises of two major railway stations – the Connolly and Heuston. And the Dublin’s national airport is built in Collins town. 


In 2016 the city began its Smart Dublin regional structure. This project was undertaken for the discovery of novel urban solutions with the help of an open data approach. The city aims at transforming its threats into opportunities by employing technological developments. With the effective use of technology, Dublin wants to ensure better mobility, improved energy efficiency, increased citizen participation, better response to extreme weather conditions and many more efficient services. 

Some of the achievements in this field involve the real-time passenger information system for the city’s public transport, the installation of smart bins, the set of a network of sensors supervising the local weather conditions, rainfall, and river levels. 

Social wellness and human resources

Dublin aims at providing a high-quality life to its residents along with nurturing nature. Health care services and education institutes are easily accessible in the city.



















New York City


New York City (NYC) is the most populous city in the New York state which is found in the nation of United State of America. It became the first capital of the United States in 1789. New York is a state in the northeastern U.S., known for New York City and towering Niagara Falls. NYC’s island of Manhattan is home to the Empire State Building, Times Square and Central Park. The Brooklyn Bridge connects Manhattan with the borough of Brooklyn. The iconic Statue of Liberty stands in New York Harbor. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy. New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports.

Data and facts

  • New York is a home to 8,398,748 people according to an estimate done in 2018. 
  • New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States.
  • Located at the southern tip of the U.S. state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. 
  • New York City is in reality a collection of many neighbourhoods scattered among the city’s five boroughs—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Staten Island—each exhibiting its own lifestyle. 
  • More than 800 languages are spoken in New York City.
  • New York City has the largest Jewish population outside of Israel, largest Chinese population outside of Asian and largest Puerto Rican population of any city in the world.
  • New York City, not Washington D.C., was the first capital of the United States of America.
  • The New York City library is home to more than 50 million books. As such, it’s the third largest library in the world and the second largest in the United States behind the Library of Congress.
  • The Central Park Mall, which is the only straight path in Central Park, was originally designed to let wealthy New Yorkers stroll, socialize and show off their fancy duds.
  • New York City’s Federal Reserve Bank has the largest gold storage in the world. The vault, which holds more than 7,000 tons of gold bars or roughly $90 billion dollars, is 80-feet below ground.
  • Albert Einstein’s brain and eyeballs are kept in a safe box in New York City.


The government of New York City, headquartered at New York City Hall in Lower Manhattan, is organized under the New York City Charter and provides for a “strong” mayor-council system. The mayor is elected to a four-year term and is responsible for the administration of city government. The New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 members, each elected from a geographic district, normally for four-year terms. All elected officials—other than those elected before 2010, who are limited to three consecutive terms—are subject to a two consecutive-term limit. The court system consists of two citywide courts and three statewide courts. New York City government employs 325,000 people, more than any other city in the United States and more than any U.S. state but three: California, Texas, and New York. The city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.


The economy of New York City encompasses the largest municipal and regional economy in the United States. Anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City has been characterized as the world’s premier financial center. It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the world’s two largest stock exchanges by both market capitalization and trading activity.

The City’s economy grew 2.4 percent in Q4 2019 on an annualized basis, surpassing national economic growth, and up from 1.6 percent in the third quarter. The increased economic pace was led by a strong labor market and solid wage growth as measured by average hourly earnings.

U.S. GDP rose at a 2.1 percent annual rate in Q4 2019, matching the 2.1 percent growth rate in the previous quarter. The biggest contributor to GDP growth was a sharp decline in imports, and the largest drag on growth was a decline in inventory investment. Consumer spending contributed 1.20 percentage points (pp) to GDP growth, less than the 2.12 pp in Q3 2019. The decrease in consumer spending contribution was primarily driven by significant reductions in the purchase of durable and nondurable goods. Durable goods contribution dropped from 0.56 pp in Q3 2019 to 0.15 pp in Q4 2019. Similarly, nondurable goods contribution dropped from 0.53 pp in Q3 2019 to 0.11 pp in Q4 2019. The biggest contributor to GDP growth was an 8.7 percent drop in imports (a net positive for GDP) most likely due to tariffs on goods from China. Chinese’s exports of goods to the U.S. accounted for 21.2 percent of all U.S. imports in 2018. , that share dropped to 18.1 percent in 2019.  U.S. exports of goods to China dropped 11.3 percent in 2019 because of retaliatory tariffs imposed by China. Despite the reduction in exports for the year, in Q4 2019 exports to China rose likely as a conciliatory overture leading to the current agreement worked out between the US and China.. The result, a decrease in imports from China and a weaker decrease in exports led to this positive contribution to the US GDP. Government expenditures contributed 0.47 pp to GDP growth in the 4th quarter, of which 0.23 pp was federal and 0.23 pp were by state and local governments. Nondefense Federal government expenditure rose 1.6 percent, and defense spending grew 4.9 percent on an annualized basis in Q4 2019.


Much of New York City’s skeletal infrastructure dates from the first part of the 20th century. As a result, many structures have been in continual service for over half a century. The average age of New York City’s 6,400 miles of sewage mains is approximately 84 years, for example. Its 6,800 miles of water mains are approximately 69 years old, and its 6,300 miles of gas mains are 56 years old. Over 41 percent of city bridges were built before 1950.

To grow New York’s competitiveness in the 21st century global economy, New York State is building today for a better tomorrow with a $100 billion infrastructure plan to build the new New York. It is the largest infrastructure and development plan in the US. New York State constructed the Mario M. Cuomo Bridge to replace the aging Tappan Zee Bridge on time and on budget; a new LaGuardia Airport that’s underway; a 1.2 million square foot expansion of Javits Convention Center; a record $27 billion to strengthen roads and bridges Upstate; an unprecedented $29.5 billion MTA Capital Plan to expand capacity and re-imagine the regional transportation system downstate; and so much more.


The story of tech’s ascent in New York stretches back nearly two decades. It was a bumpy path, with progress both by design and serendipity. DoubleClick, a survivor of the dot-com crash and a digital advertising pioneer, and Google, which made an early bet on the city, played key roles. And the Bloomberg administration also made smart policy moves. But tech in New York took hold mainly because entrepreneurs, technologists and corporations chose the city as the place to work and live, just as the city’s industries were undergoing digital transformations, according to interviews with more than two dozen people who contributed to the city’s evolution into a tech center.

Many of the city’s tech jobs are not in technology companies. Instead, they are tied to industries where the city has long been positioned as a world leader — like finance, advertising and media. Those businesses face threats from the rise of the digital age, and have adapted to compete, helping to revitalize the city’s economy in the process. There are twice as many technology jobs in non-tech industries in New York as there are in technology companies, according to Emsi, a labor market research firm.

Social Wellness and Human Resources


Education in New York City is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. New York City is home to some of the most important libraries, universities, and research centers in the world. In 2006, New York had the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions. The city receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities. It also struggles with disparity in its public school system, with some of the best-performing public schools in the United States as well as some of the worst-performing.


The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement. The New York City Board of Health is part of the department. Its regulations are compiled in title 24 of the New York City Rules (the New York City Health Code).


New York City is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, and with good reason. NYC is the mecca of business in the United States, and as a melting pot of American culture, there is something for every style, taste and budget in New York City. With so much to see and do in NYC, it’s important for NYC tourists to do their research ahead of time before their vacation in New York City. NYC has something for every style, taste and budget, and with so many hidden gems around every corner.












San Francisco


San Francisco, city and port, coextensive with San Francisco county, northern California, U.S., located on a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. It is a cultural and financial centre of the western United States and one of the country’s most cosmopolitan cities. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman’s Wharf, and its Chinatown district.

Data and facts

  • Between 2017 and 2018 the population of San Francisco, CA declined from 884,363 to 883,305, a -0.12% decrease and its median household income grew from $110,816 to $112,376, a 1.41% increase. 
  • The population of San Francisco, CA is 40% White Alone, 34.1% Asian Alone, and 15.2% Hispanic or Latino. 41.1% of the people in San Francisco, CA speak a non-English language, and 87.6% are U.S. citizens.
  • The median property value in San Francisco, CA is $1.2M, and the homeownership rate is 37.6%. 
  • Most people in San Francisco, CA commute by Public Transit, and the average commute time is 30.9 minutes. The average car ownership in San Francisco, CA is 1 car per household.
  • San Francisco was part of Mexico until the Mexican-American War in 1848.
  • During the Depression, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed. Business was so good that the city constructed the Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge during the Depression.
  • In 1901, the city outlawed burials. Most of its cemeteries are in Colma, Calif. There, the dead outnumber the living by over 1000 to 1.
  • The first bubonic plague epidemic in the continental US broke out in SF’s Chinatown in 1900.
  • The United Nations Charter was drafted and ratified in San Francisco in 1945.
  • The Chinese fortune cookie was invented by a Japanese resident of San Francisco.
  • The bear on California’s state flag is modeled after a California grizzly named Monarch, who was held at Golden Gate Park.
  • The U.S. Navy originally planned on painting the Golden Gate Bridge black with yellow stripes. The famed “International Orange” color was supposed to be a sealant.


Unlike any other California city, San Francisco (incorporated 1850) has a consolidated city-county government. The 1932 freeholders’ charter, under which the city-county still operates, provides the mayor with strong executive powers but delegates substantial authority to a chief administrative officer (appointed by the mayor) and a controller. The legislative authority is lodged with an elected board of supervisors. The other key officials, who are both appointed, are the superintendent of schools and the manager of utilities.


San Francisco has an unemployment rate of 2.4%. The US average is 3.9%. It has seen the job market increase by 1.3% over the last year. Future job growth over the next ten years is predicted to be 39.1%, which is higher than the US average of 33.5%.

Tax Rates for San Francisco

  • The Sales Tax Rate for San Francisco is 8.5%. The US average is 7.3%.
  • The Income Tax Rate for San Francisco is 9.3%. The US average is 4.6%.
  • Tax Rates can have a big impact when Comparing Cost of Living.

Income and Salaries for San Francisco

  • The average income of a San Francisco resident is $49,986 a year. The US average is $28,555 a year.
  • The Median household income of a San Francisco resident is $78,378 a year. The US average is $53,482 a year.


The backbone of San Francisco is our horizontal infrastructure; the streets, water, power, and sewer systems that make living in a city possible. Many of these projects function invisibly to many residents. They run underground, are walked over, and are turned on with the flick of a switch or turn of a faucet. The basic infrastructure systems that the City invests in provide basic services and also contribute to City-wide goals of environmental sustainability, pedestrian safety, and a more beautiful and livable city. It is imperative that the City maintain these assets in a state of good repair given the essential nature of these systems. Proactive maintenance ensures the steady provision of services and is less costly than fixing problems that have degraded beyond repair.


The San Francisco Bay Area has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United States, at 387,000 high-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts for 225,300 high-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon Valley has the highest average high-tech salary in the United States at $144,800. Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley’s largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States; other major Silicon Valley cities include (in order of decreasing population) Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, Redwood City, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Cupertino. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zurich, Switzerland and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.

Social Wellness and Human Resources


In true West Coast spirit, the San Francisco public education and school system is a little left of centre when compared with the rest of the country. There are also plenty of private schools to choose from in San Francisco, including international schools offering foreign curricula.

Public schools in San Francisco: Unlike most school districts in America, children in San Francisco do not necessarily attend public schools based on their residential address. The city tries to maintain even demographics in each school based on income, race and language.

Private schools in San Francisco: Many expats opt to send their children to one of the many private schools in San Francisco. Choosing and being accepted into one of these is often a difficult process that involves testing and interviews.

International schools in San Francisco: International schools in San Francisco are popular with expats as they can accommodate students previously studying in different curricula. This includes schools that offer French, German and Chinese education. Teaching is typically in the language associated with the school’s country of origin so that expats can be taught in their home language.

Homeschooling in San Francisco: Homeschooling is legal in the state of California and for the most part, parents are free to conduct their child’s education as they wish. Regulations do require that all children are given some form of schooling from ages 6 to 18.

Special needs education in San Francisco: Children with special needs are well provided for in San Francisco as there are a number of resources available.