Ahmedabad, in western India, is the largest city in the state of Gujarat. The Sabarmati River runs through its center. On the western bank is the Gandhi Ashram at Sabarmati, which displays the spiritual leader’s living quarters and artifacts. Across the river, the Calico Museum of Textiles, once a cloth merchant's mansion, has a significant collection of antique and modern fabrics.
The city of Ahmedabad, now the seventh-largest metropolis in India and the largest in the state of Gujarat, was founded in 1411 AD as a walled city on the eastern bank of the river Sabarmati. Historically Ahmedabad has been one of the most important centers of trade and commerce in western India. It is also a major industrial and financial city contributing about 14% of the total investments in all stock exchanges in India and 60% of the total productivity of the state. It is the home of several scientific and educational institutions of national, regional and global importance. The city has a great architectural tradition reflected in many exquisite monuments, temples and modern buildings.
Data and facts
- Ahmedabad lies at 23.03°N 72.58°E in western India at 53 metres (174 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Sabarmati river, in north-central Gujarat. It covers an area of 464 km2 (179 sq mi). The Sabarmati frequently dried up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water, and the city is in a sandy and dry area.
- Ahmedabad was built at on open and spacious plain to the east of River Sabarmati. The city comprised a small fort known as Bhadra Fort, which was enclosed by a wall containing 12 gates.
- At the 2011 Census of India Ahmedabad had a population of 5,633,927, making it the fifth most populous city in India. The urban agglomeration centred upon Ahmedabad, then having a population of 6,357,693, now estimated at 7,650,000, is the seventh most populous urban agglomeration in India.
- Ahmedabad has been selected as one of one hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Government of India’s flagship Smart Cities Mission.
- One of the places that is most famous in Ahmedabad city, Sabarmati Ashram is one of the residencies of Mahatma Gandhi. The Mahatma lived here for twelve long years during India’s freedom struggle.
- One of the oldest mosques in the city was built in the year 1414 and was named after the founder of the city, Ahmed Shah. It said to have been used as the royal household’s private mosque. It is one of the popular tourist attractions in the city due to its architecture like the prayer hall with black and white marbles with a separate chamber for women.
- Ahmedabad city became the center of Indian classical dance when the Darpana Academy of Performing Arts was established.
- Ahmedabad observes a wide range of festivals. A popular one is the annual kite-flying day on January 14 and 15.
- Lal Darwaja Market is one of the most famous and busiest markets in Ahmedabad. The market has different stalls selling clothes, electronic items and handicrafts.
- One of the biggest lakes in Ahmedabad, initially known as Hauz-E-Qutub, Kankaria Lake was once a bathing place for the royals. There is now a garden in the center of the lake with a summer palace called Nagin Wadi. It has many food stalls around the corner and pathways for people to walk around and take it in the scenery.
The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) administered Ahmedabad. The Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA) administer some of the regions surrounding the city. The AMC established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act, 1949. Administratively, the city divides into five zones and 43 wards. Each ward elects three corporators, who in turn elect a mayor. The municipal commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Gujarat state government, has vested executive powers. The mayor governs the day-to-day running of the municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital, and the city library. The city serves as the headquarters of Ahmedabad district and as the seat of the Gujarat High Court.
The gross domestic product of Ahmedabad was estimated at US$64 billion in 2014. The RBI ranked Ahmedabad as the seventh-largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. In the 19th century, the textile and garments industry received strong capital investment. On 30 May 1861 Ranchhodlal Chhotalal founded the first Indian textile mill, the Ahmedabad Spinning and Weaving Company Limited, followed by the establishment of a series of textile mills such as Calico Mills, Bagicha Mills and Arvind Mills. By 1905 there were about 33 textile mills in the city. The textile industry further expanded rapidly during the First World War and benefited from the influence of Mahatma Gandhi's Swadeshi movement, which promoted the purchase of Indian-made goods. Ahmedabad was known as the "Manchester of the East" for its textile industry. The city is the largest supplier of denim and one of the largest exporters of gemstones and jewellery in India. The automobile industry is also important to the city; after Tata's Nano project, Ford and Suzuki are planning to establish plants near Ahmedabad while the Groundbreaking ceremony for Peugeot has already been performed.
Ahmedabad is one of six operating divisions in the Western Railway zone. Railway lines connect the city to elsewhere in Gujarat and India. Ahmedabad railway station, locally known as Kalupur station, is the main terminus with 11 others. The mass-transit metro system (Ahmedabad Metro), Gujarat Metro for the cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar has been under construction since March 2015. National Highway 48 passes through Ahmedabad and connects it with Delhi and Mumbai. The National Highway 147 also links Ahmedabad to Gandhinagar. It is connected to Vadodara through National Expressway 1, a 94 km (58 mi)-long expressway with two exits. This expressway is part of the Golden Quadrilateral project.
Janmarg is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Ahmedabad Janmarg Limited, a subsidiary of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and others. Inaugurated in October 2009, the network expanded to 89 kilometres (55 mi) by December 2015 with a daily ridership of 132,000 passengers. The Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS), maintained by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, runs the public bus service in the city. Currently, more than 750 AMTS buses serve the city. Ahmedabad BRTS also runs 50 electric buses apart from CNG and diesel busses.
Ahmedabad has a thriving chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry. Two of the biggest pharmaceutical companies of India — Zydus Cadila and Torrent Pharmaceuticals — headquarter in the city. The city serves as the corporate headquarters of the Adani Group, a leading multinational trading company. The Nirma group of industries, which runs a large number of detergent and chemical industrial units, has its corporate headquarters in the city. In recent years many foreign companies have set up their sales offices and production facilities in Ahmedabad, among them Bosch Rexroth, Germany (hydraulic components); Stork, Netherlands (textile machinery; joint venture with ATE, India's leading textile equipment trading house); Rollepaal, Netherlands (pipe extrusion equipment); and Johnson Pumps, Sweden. The completion and operation of the Sardar Sarovar Project of dams and canals have improved the supply of potable water and electricity for the city. In recent years, the Gujarat government has increased investment in the modernization of the city's infrastructure, providing for the construction of larger roads and improvements to water supply, electricity and communications. The information technology industry has developed significantly in Ahmedabad. A NASSCOM survey in 2002 on the "Super Nine Indian Destinations" for IT-enabled services ranked Ahmedabad fifth among the top nine most competitive cities in the country.
- in 11th century as Ashawal
- on 26 February 1411 as Ahmedabad