San Francisco

Introduction

San Francisco, city and port, coextensive with San Francisco county, northern California, U.S., located on a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. It is a cultural and financial centre of the western United States and one of the country’s most cosmopolitan cities. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman’s Wharf, and its Chinatown district.

Data and facts

  • Between 2017 and 2018 the population of San Francisco, CA declined from 884,363 to 883,305, a -0.12% decrease and its median household income grew from $110,816 to $112,376, a 1.41% increase. 
  • The population of San Francisco, CA is 40% White Alone, 34.1% Asian Alone, and 15.2% Hispanic or Latino. 41.1% of the people in San Francisco, CA speak a non-English language, and 87.6% are U.S. citizens.
  • The median property value in San Francisco, CA is $1.2M, and the homeownership rate is 37.6%. 
  • Most people in San Francisco, CA commute by Public Transit, and the average commute time is 30.9 minutes. The average car ownership in San Francisco, CA is 1 car per household.
  • San Francisco was part of Mexico until the Mexican-American War in 1848.
  • During the Depression, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed. Business was so good that the city constructed the Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge during the Depression.
  • In 1901, the city outlawed burials. Most of its cemeteries are in Colma, Calif. There, the dead outnumber the living by over 1000 to 1.
  • The first bubonic plague epidemic in the continental US broke out in SF’s Chinatown in 1900.
  • The United Nations Charter was drafted and ratified in San Francisco in 1945.
  • The Chinese fortune cookie was invented by a Japanese resident of San Francisco.
  • The bear on California’s state flag is modeled after a California grizzly named Monarch, who was held at Golden Gate Park.
  • The U.S. Navy originally planned on painting the Golden Gate Bridge black with yellow stripes. The famed “International Orange” color was supposed to be a sealant.

Administration

Unlike any other California city, San Francisco (incorporated 1850) has a consolidated city-county government. The 1932 freeholders’ charter, under which the city-county still operates, provides the mayor with strong executive powers but delegates substantial authority to a chief administrative officer (appointed by the mayor) and a controller. The legislative authority is lodged with an elected board of supervisors. The other key officials, who are both appointed, are the superintendent of schools and the manager of utilities.

Economy

San Francisco has an unemployment rate of 2.4%. The US average is 3.9%. It has seen the job market increase by 1.3% over the last year. Future job growth over the next ten years is predicted to be 39.1%, which is higher than the US average of 33.5%.

Tax Rates for San Francisco

  • The Sales Tax Rate for San Francisco is 8.5%. The US average is 7.3%.
  • The Income Tax Rate for San Francisco is 9.3%. The US average is 4.6%.
  • Tax Rates can have a big impact when Comparing Cost of Living.

Income and Salaries for San Francisco

  • The average income of a San Francisco resident is $49,986 a year. The US average is $28,555 a year.
  • The Median household income of a San Francisco resident is $78,378 a year. The US average is $53,482 a year.

Infrastructure

The backbone of San Francisco is our horizontal infrastructure; the streets, water, power, and sewer systems that make living in a city possible. Many of these projects function invisibly to many residents. They run underground, are walked over, and are turned on with the flick of a switch or turn of a faucet. The basic infrastructure systems that the City invests in provide basic services and also contribute to City-wide goals of environmental sustainability, pedestrian safety, and a more beautiful and livable city. It is imperative that the City maintain these assets in a state of good repair given the essential nature of these systems. Proactive maintenance ensures the steady provision of services and is less costly than fixing problems that have degraded beyond repair.

Technology

The San Francisco Bay Area has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United States, at 387,000 high-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts for 225,300 high-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon Valley has the highest average high-tech salary in the United States at $144,800. Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley’s largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States; other major Silicon Valley cities include (in order of decreasing population) Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, Redwood City, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Cupertino. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zurich, Switzerland and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

In true West Coast spirit, the San Francisco public education and school system is a little left of centre when compared with the rest of the country. There are also plenty of private schools to choose from in San Francisco, including international schools offering foreign curricula.

Public schools in San Francisco: Unlike most school districts in America, children in San Francisco do not necessarily attend public schools based on their residential address. The city tries to maintain even demographics in each school based on income, race and language.

Private schools in San Francisco: Many expats opt to send their children to one of the many private schools in San Francisco. Choosing and being accepted into one of these is often a difficult process that involves testing and interviews.

International schools in San Francisco: International schools in San Francisco are popular with expats as they can accommodate students previously studying in different curricula. This includes schools that offer French, German and Chinese education. Teaching is typically in the language associated with the school’s country of origin so that expats can be taught in their home language.

Homeschooling in San Francisco: Homeschooling is legal in the state of California and for the most part, parents are free to conduct their child’s education as they wish. Regulations do require that all children are given some form of schooling from ages 6 to 18.

Special needs education in San Francisco: Children with special needs are well provided for in San Francisco as there are a number of resources available.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_Valley

https://onesanfrancisco.org/the-plan/infrastructure-streets

https://datausa.io/profile/geo/san-francisco-ca

http://www.sfbos.org

http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb//pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html

https://www.house.gov/representatives#state_ca

https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest.html

http://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/article/San-Francisco-the-birthplace-of-the-United-6336655.php

http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/brick.html

https://www.un.org/en/charter-united-nations/

https://www.natureindex.com/supplements/nature-index-2018-science-cities/tables/overall

 

New York City

Introduction

New York City (NYC) is the most populous city in the New York state which is found in the nation of United State of America. It became the first capital of the United States in 1789. New York is a state in the northeastern U.S., known for New York City and towering Niagara Falls. NYC’s island of Manhattan is home to the Empire State Building, Times Square and Central Park. The Brooklyn Bridge connects Manhattan with the borough of Brooklyn. The iconic Statue of Liberty stands in New York Harbor. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy. New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports.

Data and facts

  • New York is a home to 8,398,748 people according to an estimate done in 2018. 
  • New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States.
  • Located at the southern tip of the U.S. state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. 
  • New York City is in reality a collection of many neighbourhoods scattered among the city’s five boroughs—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Staten Island—each exhibiting its own lifestyle. 
  • More than 800 languages are spoken in New York City.
  • New York City has the largest Jewish population outside of Israel, largest Chinese population outside of Asian and largest Puerto Rican population of any city in the world.
  • New York City, not Washington D.C., was the first capital of the United States of America.
  • The New York City library is home to more than 50 million books. As such, it’s the third largest library in the world and the second largest in the United States behind the Library of Congress.
  • The Central Park Mall, which is the only straight path in Central Park, was originally designed to let wealthy New Yorkers stroll, socialize and show off their fancy duds.
  • New York City’s Federal Reserve Bank has the largest gold storage in the world. The vault, which holds more than 7,000 tons of gold bars or roughly $90 billion dollars, is 80-feet below ground.
  • Albert Einstein’s brain and eyeballs are kept in a safe box in New York City.

Administration

The government of New York City, headquartered at New York City Hall in Lower Manhattan, is organized under the New York City Charter and provides for a “strong” mayor-council system. The mayor is elected to a four-year term and is responsible for the administration of city government. The New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 members, each elected from a geographic district, normally for four-year terms. All elected officials—other than those elected before 2010, who are limited to three consecutive terms—are subject to a two consecutive-term limit. The court system consists of two citywide courts and three statewide courts. New York City government employs 325,000 people, more than any other city in the United States and more than any U.S. state but three: California, Texas, and New York. The city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

Economy

The economy of New York City encompasses the largest municipal and regional economy in the United States. Anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City has been characterized as the world’s premier financial center. It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the world’s two largest stock exchanges by both market capitalization and trading activity.

The City’s economy grew 2.4 percent in Q4 2019 on an annualized basis, surpassing national economic growth, and up from 1.6 percent in the third quarter. The increased economic pace was led by a strong labor market and solid wage growth as measured by average hourly earnings.

U.S. GDP rose at a 2.1 percent annual rate in Q4 2019, matching the 2.1 percent growth rate in the previous quarter. The biggest contributor to GDP growth was a sharp decline in imports, and the largest drag on growth was a decline in inventory investment. Consumer spending contributed 1.20 percentage points (pp) to GDP growth, less than the 2.12 pp in Q3 2019. The decrease in consumer spending contribution was primarily driven by significant reductions in the purchase of durable and nondurable goods. Durable goods contribution dropped from 0.56 pp in Q3 2019 to 0.15 pp in Q4 2019. Similarly, nondurable goods contribution dropped from 0.53 pp in Q3 2019 to 0.11 pp in Q4 2019. The biggest contributor to GDP growth was an 8.7 percent drop in imports (a net positive for GDP) most likely due to tariffs on goods from China. Chinese’s exports of goods to the U.S. accounted for 21.2 percent of all U.S. imports in 2018. , that share dropped to 18.1 percent in 2019.  U.S. exports of goods to China dropped 11.3 percent in 2019 because of retaliatory tariffs imposed by China. Despite the reduction in exports for the year, in Q4 2019 exports to China rose likely as a conciliatory overture leading to the current agreement worked out between the US and China.. The result, a decrease in imports from China and a weaker decrease in exports led to this positive contribution to the US GDP. Government expenditures contributed 0.47 pp to GDP growth in the 4th quarter, of which 0.23 pp was federal and 0.23 pp were by state and local governments. Nondefense Federal government expenditure rose 1.6 percent, and defense spending grew 4.9 percent on an annualized basis in Q4 2019.

Infrastructure

Much of New York City’s skeletal infrastructure dates from the first part of the 20th century. As a result, many structures have been in continual service for over half a century. The average age of New York City’s 6,400 miles of sewage mains is approximately 84 years, for example. Its 6,800 miles of water mains are approximately 69 years old, and its 6,300 miles of gas mains are 56 years old. Over 41 percent of city bridges were built before 1950.

To grow New York’s competitiveness in the 21st century global economy, New York State is building today for a better tomorrow with a $100 billion infrastructure plan to build the new New York. It is the largest infrastructure and development plan in the US. New York State constructed the Mario M. Cuomo Bridge to replace the aging Tappan Zee Bridge on time and on budget; a new LaGuardia Airport that’s underway; a 1.2 million square foot expansion of Javits Convention Center; a record $27 billion to strengthen roads and bridges Upstate; an unprecedented $29.5 billion MTA Capital Plan to expand capacity and re-imagine the regional transportation system downstate; and so much more.

Technology

The story of tech’s ascent in New York stretches back nearly two decades. It was a bumpy path, with progress both by design and serendipity. DoubleClick, a survivor of the dot-com crash and a digital advertising pioneer, and Google, which made an early bet on the city, played key roles. And the Bloomberg administration also made smart policy moves. But tech in New York took hold mainly because entrepreneurs, technologists and corporations chose the city as the place to work and live, just as the city’s industries were undergoing digital transformations, according to interviews with more than two dozen people who contributed to the city’s evolution into a tech center.

Many of the city’s tech jobs are not in technology companies. Instead, they are tied to industries where the city has long been positioned as a world leader — like finance, advertising and media. Those businesses face threats from the rise of the digital age, and have adapted to compete, helping to revitalize the city’s economy in the process. There are twice as many technology jobs in non-tech industries in New York as there are in technology companies, according to Emsi, a labor market research firm.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

Education in New York City is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. New York City is home to some of the most important libraries, universities, and research centers in the world. In 2006, New York had the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions. The city receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities. It also struggles with disparity in its public school system, with some of the best-performing public schools in the United States as well as some of the worst-performing.

Health

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement. The New York City Board of Health is part of the department. Its regulations are compiled in title 24 of the New York City Rules (the New York City Health Code).

Tourism

New York City is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, and with good reason. NYC is the mecca of business in the United States, and as a melting pot of American culture, there is something for every style, taste and budget in New York City. With so much to see and do in NYC, it’s important for NYC tourists to do their research ahead of time before their vacation in New York City. NYC has something for every style, taste and budget, and with so many hidden gems around every corner.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City

https://www.nyit.edu/nyc

https://comptroller.nyc.gov/reports/new-york-city-quarterly-economic-update/

https://www.nationalreview.com/magazine/2019/11/25/the-progressive-transformation-of-new-york-city-schools/

https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/newyorkcitynewyork/PST045219

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pLjYpwiuN_wC&pg=PT28&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/04/22/world/ap-un-united-nations-climate-agreement-the-latest.html

http://www.history.com/topics/statue-of-liberty

https://web.archive.org/web/20111023193440/http://www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/nycdoc/html/kbd_brnx.html

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h2122.html

Dublin

Introduction

Dublin is the capital city of Ireland. It covers 115 square kilometers on the east coast of the country. The city, called Baile Atha Cliath in Irish, is situated in the Leinster province. The UN World Urbanization Prospects estimated its population for the year 2020 as 1,228,179 people. Dublin Port is the premium port of the country which adds value to its financial and commercial importance.

In 2015 the city ranked 41 among the most tourists visited cities by Euromonitor International ranks. The city is well known for its beatific landscape and exhibition of artwork. The home to the National Museum of artwork lies at the mouth of River Liffey and is flanked by a Wicklow mountain range in the south.

Data and Facts

  • The population of Dublin includes more than 250,000 non-Irish nationals. And the foreign-born can be further analyzed as 23% of the non-Irish people are from the United States, 4% are from Lithuania and 13.5% people from Poland. This data was accurate for the year 2011.
  • In the first quarter of 2019, 706,000 people were reported as employed. 31.7% of Ireland’s working population is settled in Dublin 
  • In the second quarter of 2019, the Dublin port witnessed a decline for the first time since 2013.
  • The unemployment rate for the third quarter of 2019 was 4.4%.  and the city ranked 5th in the FDI Fintech Location of the Future for the year 2019-2020 
  • Every day around 500000 people travel within the city. In the third quarter of 2019, the passenger trips in Dublin surpassed by 60 million. 
  • In 2018, the Financial Times positioned Dublin as Europe’s second most attractive city for foreign direct investment.

Administration

The city is the headquarters for Ireland’s government departments. Leinster House is the venue where the houses of the Irish parliament (Dail and Senate) meet. Dublin comprises of 12 constituencies, and its government is divided into two branches- legislative and executive. Where the city manager carries out the executive functions and the Dublin City Council is responsible for the legislation. The Dublin Regional Authority coordinates, reviews and monitors the functions discharged by the City Council and the three counties.

Economy

In the third quarter of 2019 the unemployment rate recorded the lowest percentage in 14 years, that is, 4.4%. Employments were generated majorly by the technology (ICT), insurance and real estate industries. In the first nine months of 2019, the Dublin airport reported 24.5 million passengers showing a growth of 5.4% from the last year. As the transportation industry prospers, public transport trips increased by 8.7% in the city. In the fourth quarter, the Dublin MARKIT PMI also recovered to 53.7 due to expansion in manufacturing. Following are the major industries contributing to the low rates of unemployment, and higher rates of economic growth-

  • Information, communication and technology industry offers 9% of the total jobs in the city.
  • Health and social care industries comprise 13% of the total employed people in Dublin
  • Professional services represent 8.5% of the city’s employment
  • Art and recreation industry report 6% of the total employment
  • Logistics and storage offer 5.5% of the total employment.

The diverse and large-scale economic environment attracts foreign direct investment and numerous leading world companies to settle in Dublin. 250 global financial institutions, 50% of the world’s top 50 banks, top 5 global software companies and 18 of the world’s top 25 med-tech companies, all these reside in Dublin. In the FDI Fintech locations of the future 2019/2020, you will find Dublin in the first position due to its FDI performance, innovation, economic potential, connectivity, attractiveness, and cost-effectiveness.

Business environment

Dublin features a diverse economy with variegated business. And the business environment is known as friendly and welcoming. Dublin encourages start-ups with its low bureaucratic and low tax environment. The city also has a Dublin commissioner for start-ups. The start-ups get easy access to quality staff, suppliers experienced entrepreneurs, research institutes, investors and other development support services in the city of Dublin. The city is home to the world-class creative environment that nurtures and supports the development of innovative technology, that is named the CeADAR. 

Infrastructure

In 2004 a tram system spurred functioning from the ST. Stephen’s Green in the heartland of Dublin. In 2006 the city opened the Dublin Port Tunnel connecting the port and the national motorway network. The train service running along the coast is named the DART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit). Furthermore, the city comprises of two major railway stations – the Connolly and Heuston. And the Dublin’s national airport is built in Collins town. 

Technology

In 2016 the city began its Smart Dublin regional structure. This project was undertaken for the discovery of novel urban solutions with the help of an open data approach. The city aims at transforming its threats into opportunities by employing technological developments. With the effective use of technology, Dublin wants to ensure better mobility, improved energy efficiency, increased citizen participation, better response to extreme weather conditions and many more efficient services. 

Some of the achievements in this field involve the real-time passenger information system for the city’s public transport, the installation of smart bins, the set of a network of sensors supervising the local weather conditions, rainfall, and river levels. 

Social wellness and human resources

Dublin aims at providing a high-quality life to its residents along with nurturing nature. Health care services and education institutes are easily accessible in the city.

References

https://www.eolasmagazine.ie/dublin-smart-city/

https://www.idea.ie/dublin-smartest-city-world/

https://smartdublin.ie/about/

https://www.independent.ie/business/irish/dublin-rises-three-places-to-30th-in-global-smart-city-ranking-37158483.html

http://www.dublineconomy.ie/2018/02/01/dublin-smart-city/

https://www.easyexpat.com/en/guides/ireland/dublin/overview/economy.htm

http://www.dublincity.ie/dublin-economic-monitor-brexit-and-slowing-global-economy-are-key-challenges-dublin%E2%80%99s-growth

https://www.localenterprise.ie/DublinCity/Enterprise-Development/Why-Start-a-Business-in-Dublin-/

https://dublin.ie/invest/smartdublin/

https://www.britannica.com/place/Dublin/Administration-and-society

https://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/dublin-population/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin#Economy

https://www.worldscapitalcities.com/capital-facts-for-dublin-ireland/

https://www.dublinchamber.ie/business-agenda/economic-profile-of-dublin

https://dublin.ie/work/opportunities-in-your-industry/

http://www.dublincity.ie/

https://www.irelandbeforeyoudie.com/10-fun-interesting-facts-about-dublin-you-never-knew/

Paris

Introduction

Paris is the capital city of France. It is situated in the north-central part of the country. People were living on the site of the present-day city, located along the Seine River some 233 miles (375 km) upstream from the river’s mouth on the English Channel (La Manche), by about 7600 BCE. The modern city has spread from the island (the Île de la Cité) and far beyond both banks of the Seine. It is a major European city and a global center for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. Its 19th-century cityscape is crisscrossed by wide boulevards and the River Seine. Paris is one of the most desirable and popular travel destinations in the world thanks to its stunning architecture, its wealth of art and culture and its exquisite gastronomy. Paris is famous for its cafe culture, the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre, Notre Dame, the Moulin Rouge, pastries, and fashion. Paris is often seen as having beauty, elegance, and as being a boldly romantic city.

Data and facts

  • According to recent estimates, the population of the city of Paris is 2,206,488, representing a small decline in population numbers from 2014.However, the population of the surrounding suburbs is estimated to be around 10.5 million, which makes it the most populous urban area in the European Union. 
  • Paris was originally a Roman City called “Lutetia.”
  • The French army was the first to use camouflage, which comes from the French verb “to make up for the stage.” The army began wearing camouflage in 1915 during World War I.
  • There are at least three replicas of the Statue of Liberty in Paris. The most famous of them exists on an island in the middle of the Seine and looks towards her sister statue in New York.
  • The Eiffel Tower was supposed to be a temporary installation, intended to stand for 20 years after being built for the 1889 World Fair.
  • Visitors to the Eiffel Tower have to climb 1,665 steps to reach the top – unless they take the elevator! There are a mere 270 steps to reach the Basilica of the Sacré Cœur.
  • The first public screening of a movie was by French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière in December 1895. They used their invention “the cinématographe” to show 10 films of about 50 seconds each.
  • There are 6,100 rues – or streets – in Paris; the shortest one, Rue des Degrés, is just 5.75 meters long and can be found in the 2nd arrondissement.

Administration

As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France’s national government. For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of France resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement, while the Prime Minister’s seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement. Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon.

The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the left bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-highest public official in France after the President of the Republic, resides in the Petit Luxembourg, a small annex to the Palais du Luxembourg. France’s highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation which is the highest court in the judicial order reviews criminal and civil cases.

Economy

France’s economic freedom score is 66.0, making its economy the 64th freest in the 2020 Index. Its overall score has increased by 2.2 points, primarily because of an increase in the score for government integrity. France is ranked 34th among 45 countries in the Europe region, and its overall score is below the regional average and well above the world average. The French economy has languished in the moderately free category since 2004. GDP growth over the past five years has likewise been tepid. The government continues to push its package of legislative reforms aimed at lowering the stubbornly high rate of unemployment, especially among young people; improving foreign investors’ negative views of the economic environment; increasing competitiveness; and improving public finances.

The economy of Paris is comprised of high finance, banking, and luxury tourist goods. The Champs Elysées and neighboring streets house many high-fashion couturiers (designers), parfumiers (perfume shops), and other luxury items. Universities, museums, and cafés cater to tourists and residents alike. Government employees are numerous as France is a bureaucratic country. France is also a member of the European Economic Community.

Infrastructure

Construction sites in the City of Light are bustling with activity open day and night. Mechanical moles bore tunnels underneath its foundations as entire neighborhoods are transformed by urban planning projects. There are two goals driving the activity: the city is preparing to host the Olympic Games in 2024, and it is looking ahead to 2050, when it aims to reduce its toxic emissions to zero and become carbon neutral.
President Emmanuel Macron has mapped out the strategic guidelines, but the operative planning is in the hands of Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo, who is a huge supporter of infrastructure projects to re-launch the city. The city’s transformation is an opportunity for France as a whole, given that the country has one million engineers (second in Europe only to Germany). The nation looks to Paris as a magnet for the creation of large infrastructure works that are in turn an engine for economic growth.
Paris is living through a new phase of grandeur, flaunting its capacity to finance construction of what will be the world’s largest subway network and at the same time investing in the urban renewal of its hinterland and of the satellite cities that together make up what the French refer to as “Grand Paris” or Greater Paris.

Technology

As Paris evolved, certain advancements in technology were made that changed the fabric of cultural life in the city. Specifically, changes occurred in three major areas: the use of glass in architecture, steam railways, and street renovations. Until recently, the global technology boom seemed faint in Paris. French society is more risk averse and less open to startup opportunities than the US and UK, according to a 2016 entrepreneurship survey. Europe, in general, has fewer serial entrepreneurs than in America, where a well-established venture capital industry traces its roots, by some accounts, to the 19th century. Still, the tech scene in Paris is much smaller than in London, and it’s dwarfed by hubs in the US and Israel. Although Macron has said he wants France to become a country of licornes (unicorns), for now it only has one private startup valued at more than $1 billion: long-distance ride-sharing company BlaBlaCar, according to CrunchBase data. The UK has 10, and the US more than 100.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

The French education system consists of three stages: primary education, secondary education, and higher education. Most French elementary and secondary schools, as well as a large number of universities, are public institutions that have highly centralized administrations. The curricula at primary and secondary schools are standardized across all schools for a given grade.

Health

The French health care system is generally recognized as offering one of the best, services of public health care in the world. Above all, it is a system that works, provides universal cover, and is a system that is strongly defended by virtually everyone in France. The health care system in France is made up of a fully-integrated network of public hospitals, private hospitals, doctors and other medical service providers. It is a universal service providing health care for every citizen, irrespective of wealth, age or social status. The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.

Tourism

Tourism in Paris is a major income source. In 2018, 17.95 million international, overnight tourists visited the city, mainly for sightseeing and shopping (and estimated to be well over double if including domestic overnight visitors). Top sights include Notre Dame (12 million visitors in 2017), Disneyland Paris, Sacre Cœur, the Versailles Palace, the Louvre Museum, the Eiffel Tower, Centre Pompidou, and the Musée d’Orsay. The largest numbers of foreign tourists who come to the Paris region are British, American, German, Italian, Chinese, and Canadian.

References

https://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/paris-population/

https://www.britannica.com/place/France/Economy

https://www.webuildvalue.com/en/reportage/paris-a-european-pioneer.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris

https://eu.usatoday.com/story/travel/flights/todayinthesky/2018/04/09/list-worlds-20-busiest-airports-2017/498552002/

https://japantoday.com/category/features/travel/the-51-busiest-train-stations-in-the-world-all-but-6-located-in-japan

https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1893198

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Art_Newspaper

http://www.cnn.com/2015/01/21/europe/2015-paris-terror-attacks-fast-facts/index.html

https://www.reuters.com/article/2015/11/14/us-france-shooting-idUSKCN0T22IU20151114

https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2015/01/14/attentats-terroristes-les-questions-que-vous-nous-avez-le-plus-posees_4554653_4355770.html

http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view/EUR265bn-grand-paris-metro-expansion-programme-confirmed.html

Amsterdam

Introduction

Amsterdam is the capital city of the Netherlands and this country is located in North-West Europe. It’s between Germany in the east, Belgium in the south, and the North Sea in the north and west. On the map, Amsterdam is located at 52°22′ north latitude and 4°53′ east longitude (meaning over 52 degrees north of the Equator, which is 0 degrees and 4 degrees east of London, which was once defined as 0 degrees). Amsterdam is famous for a lot of things: the beautiful historic buildings, the rijksmuseum, the canals, the Anne Frank house, the red light district and of course because of their free-spiritness and tons of coffee shops or just random shops that sell cannabis. 

Data and facts

  • While Amsterdam has a 2016 population of 813,562 in the city limits, the urban area has a population estimated at 1.1 million and a greater metropolitan area with a population close to 1.6 million. The city has a population density of 4,908 people per square kilometer (12,710/sq mi). 
  • Amsterdam counts over 800.000 inhabitants and more than 170 nationalities. 216 trams, 2500 boat houses, 75 museums, 207 paintings of Van Gogh, 14 five-star hotels, 15 cinemas and 16 clubs
  • Amsterdam has officially only been the capital of The Netherlands since 1983. Before that everyone saw Amsterdam as the capital, but it wasn’t official.
  • The motto under the sign of Amsterdam (three crosses) says heroic, determined and merciful.
  • De Torensluis Bridge from 1648 is the oldest and widest bridge of Amsterdam.
  • The biggest football club in Amsterdam, Ajax, has one of the most successful youth education programs in football in the world.
  • Amsterdam has 165 canals, which is in total more than 100 kilometers. 25.000 bikes are thrown or disappearing in the Amsterdam canals every year. Only 8.000 – 10.000 get picked out by a special boat from the municipality.
  • Amsterdam has more canals than Venice and more bridges than Paris.
  • Amsterdam Schiphol Airport is located a few meters below sea level.
  • Amsterdam gets visited by around 14 million tourists each year. Around 4.5 million of those are Dutch tourists and more than 9.5 million are foreign visitors.
  • There are more than 300 coffee shops in Amsterdam. In coffee shops, you can buy up to 5 grams of soft drugs. Soft drugs are not legal in The Netherlands but tolerated. If you buy weed from a street dealer it’s illegal as you are only allowed to buy soft drugs at coffee shops. All hard drugs are illegal.
  • The main shopping street of Amsterdam, the Kalverstraat, exists for more than 600 years. Until 1629 there was a market to sell cows, calves and oxes which refers to the name. Kalveren means calves, so it’s literally the calves street.

Administration

The city council, the College of Mayors and Alderpersons, and the district committees together form the Amsterdam city government. The city council is the highest governing body and consists of elected representatives of the people of Amsterdam. City council elections are held every four years. At that time, Amsterdam’s residents vote to elect the 45 members of the city council. They also vote for a district committee to manage their city district. The College of Mayor and Alderpersons is responsible for daily operations and policy implementation. The city council chooses the alderpersons (also known as deputy mayors). There are seven alderpersons, each with their own portfolio of topics. The mayor is the chairperson of both the College of Mayor and Alderpersons and the city council. The national government appoints the mayor. The meetings of the College of Mayor and Alderpersons are not open to the public.

Amsterdam has seven city districts: Centre, Nieuw-West, Noord, Oost, West, Zuid, Zuidoost. Each city district is managed by a district committee. The College of Mayor and Alderpersons appoints three managing directors in each city district. The managing directors are supported by an advisory committee. The number of committee members depends on number of inhabitants of the district. The committee is the link between the district and City Hall. They deal with important topics in the district, such as the design of streets and squares, public greenery and parks, household waste collection, and social work in the neighbourhood.

Economy

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is ranked fifth best of European cities in which to locate an international business, surpassed by London, Paris, Frankfurt and Barcelona. Many large corporations and banks have their headquarters in Amsterdam, including AkzoNobel, Heineken International, ING Group, ABN AMRO, TomTom, Delta Lloyd Group, Booking.com and Philips. KPMG International’s global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen, where many non-Dutch companies have settled as well, because surrounding communities allow full land ownership, contrary to Amsterdam’s land-lease system.

Infrastructure

Amsterdam has a world-class logistics infrastructure, with the Port of Amsterdam, the nearby Port of Rotterdam, and Schiphol Airport. In their need to look beyond their own borders, the Netherlands has historically been a hub for trade in Europe and beyond and continues this tradition today. The many conferences, tradeshows, and events hosted in Amsterdam are often an important first introduction to the city. These occasions can facilitate serendipitous encounters. Amsterdam hosts cultural offerings in the visual and performing arts and the creative industries. The city’s strong network of knowledge institutes, combined with a thriving creative industries sector, a vibrant startup community, and a high density of European and global headquarters, present the opportunity to bring people together in a cross-disciplinary, cross-ideology, and cross-cultural setting.

Technology

Amsterdam is a thriving tech and ICT hub. A prominent choice for international professionals, the city is home to an open and creative tech scene and numerous innovative companies. There is an impressive digital infrastructure – the Amsterdam Internet Exchange (AMS-IX) is one of the world’s largest data transport hubs. Various tech conferences and many accelerators and incubator programs for start-ups cement Amsterdam’s position as vibrant startup hub and make it an ideal place to validate and tweak business models.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

Amsterdam has a strong, well-balanced education system. Day care is available for very young children, typically from 0 to 4 years old. Some may begin preschool from the age of 2, although this is optional. Children then attend primary school from the age of four, before transferring to secondary school after eight years.

Health

Dutch healthcare is among the best in the world, with people having access to advanced treatments and preventative care during all stages of their lives. The health insurance system in the Netherlands is based on the principle of social solidarity. Together, we all pay the overall cost of health care.

Tourism

Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. With its universities, academies, and research institutes, along with more than 40 museums, numerous theaters, and entertainment venues, Amsterdam is also the country’s leading cultural center. In addition, the city is famous for its many well-preserved historic homes, laid out in a pattern of concentric segments in the shape of a fan and built on piles driven through an upper layer of mud into the firm, sandy bottom up to 18 meters below.

References

https://www.iamsterdam.com/en/

https://thenextweb.com/insider/2018/04/05/9-reasons-why-amsterdam-is-the-best-place-on-earth-if-you-work-in-tech/

https://www.planetware.com/tourist-attractions-/amsterdam-nl-nh-amst.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amsterdam

https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/03759NED/table?ts=1551192262284

https://www.nl-prov.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/regio-randstad-monitor-2017.pdf

https://www.savills.co.uk/research_articles/229130/274942-0

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-22/the-next-global-tech-hotspot-amsterdam-stakes-its-claim

https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/37230ned/table?fromstatweb

https://web.archive.org/web/20160106010052/http://stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl/english/amsterdam_treasures/trade/toll_privilege/index.en.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20130921053543/http://www.ahn.nl/postcodetool

https://www.wantedineurope.com/news/amsterdam-worldc292s-most-multicultural-city.html

 

Berlin

Introduction

Berlin, the capital of Germany and the country’s largest city, is also a major center of politics, culture, media, and science. Noted for its cultural flair, Berlin is home to the world famous Berlin Opera and Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, while its diverse art scene encompasses hundreds of galleries, events, and museums, including those on Museum Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Despite the devastation of WWII, and following decades of decay to the east of the infamous Berlin Wall, the city has been rebuilt in a way that celebrates its successes while acknowledging a dark past. Berlin offers an eclectic mix of new and classic architecture, dynamic entertainment, shopping, and a wide variety of sports and cultural institutions. To get the most out of your sightseeing, be sure to refer often to our list of the top tourist attractions in Berlin.

Data and facts

  • The current population of Berlin in 2020 is 3,562,000, a 0.14% increase from 2019.
  • Berlin is over 9 times the size of Paris, BUT it only has 1/5 of Paris’ density (4K inhabitants per square Km as opposed to 21K inhabitants per square Km in Paris).
  • There are 180 museums in Berlin.
  • In 1848, Berlin proved itself to be way ahead of its time by banning smoking in the street. Now it is one of the few cities in Western Europe where smoking in bars is still the norm.
  • The Berlin Zoo is not only the most visited Zoo in Europe but also hosts 1,380 different animal species and over 18,662 animals. The Zoo is said to have the largest stock of animals in the world.
  • Berlin has more bridges than Venice – around 1,700 of them. It is also said that Berlin has more waterways than Amsterdam, Stockholm and Venice COMBINED. 
  • Berlin is home to 3 UNESCO world heritage sites. The Museum Island, Sansoussi Palace and Parks in Potsdam and the Modernism Housing Estates.
  • Berlin is considered by many as Germany`s greenest city with over 44% of its area made of waterways, woods, rivers and green areas.
  • Berlin is home to the longest open air gallery in the world with a little over 1.3 Km. The East Side Gallery showcases over 100 murals from artists from all over the world. Perhaps the most famous is “The Fraternal Kiss”.
  • Berlin-born tinkerer Konrad Zuse invented the world’s first programmable computer in 1941, making him the father of the modern computer.

Administration

Germany’s capital, Berlin, is both a city and a federal state (Land). At the state level, the position of Governing Mayor of Berlin corresponds to that of a Minister President of one of the other federal states (Länder). The representatives of the state government are elected by the Berlin House of Representatives. The governing mayor nominates the senators. The Berlin state government comprises of the governing mayor and 10en senators.

Economy

The economy of Berlin is dominated by the service sector, with around 84% of all companies doing business in services. Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering. 

Infrastructure

Berlin has developed a highly complex transportation infrastructure providing very diverse modes of urban mobility. 979 bridges cross 197 kilometers of inner city waterways, 5,334 kilometers (3,314 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 73 kilometers (45 mi) are motorways. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. Regional rail lines provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.

Technology

Consistent with its avant-garde reputation, Berlin is leading the way in science and technology development in Germany. The capital drives innovative, globally-recognized businesses such as SoundCloud (an online audio distribution platform with over 40 million users) and ResearchGate (a social networking site for scientists and researchers). Although previously focused on e-commerce, largely thanks to the dominant online startup incubator Rocket Internet, Berlin’s tech scene is rapidly developing in a variety of sectors, including fintech, software and media. As a city which drives the creation of innovative companies every 20 minutes, Berlin’s startup industry is predicted to generate 100,000 job opportunities by 2020. In fact, more investment goes into startups in Berlin than anywhere else in Europe. This surging startup growth indicates the next chapter in Berlin’s history, a city on the cusp of a tech Renaissance.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

Education in Berlin covers the whole spectrum from nurseries, kindergarten, primary education, secondary education, apprenticeships, higher education, adult education and research in Berlin. The German states are primarily responsible for the educational system in Germany. The city has a six-year primary education program. After completing primary school, students progress to the Sekundarschule (a comprehensive school) or Gymnasium (college preparatory school). Berlin has a special bilingual school program embedded in the “Europaschule”.

Health

No vaccinations are required for travel to Berlin, but the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all travelers be covered for diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella and polio. If you are a citizen of the EU, the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) entitles you to reduced-cost or free medical treatment for illness or injury, but not emergency repatriation home. Check with your local health authorities for information on how to obtain an EHIC. Non-EU citizens should check if a similar reciprocal agreement exists between their country and Germany, or if their policy at home provides worldwide healthcare coverage. If you need to buy travel health insurance, be sure to get a policy that also covers emergency repatriation. While some plans pay doctors or hospitals directly, note that many healthcare providers may still demand immediate payment from nonlocal. Most do not accept credit cards.

Medical Services

  • High-level health care is available from a Rettungsstelle (emergency department) at a Krankenhaus (hospital) or from an Arztpraxis (doctor’s office). Most doctors speak at least some English, especially in the hospitals.
  • The most central hospital with a 24-hour emergency room is the renowned Charité Mitte.
  • For minor illnesses (headache, bruises, diarrhea), pharmacists can provide advice, sell over-the-counter medications and make doctors’ referrals if further help is needed.
  • Condoms are widely available in drugstores, pharmacies and supermarkets. Birth control pills require a doctor’s prescription but the morning after pill does not and is sold in pharmacies for about €16.

Pharmacies

  • German chemists (drugstores, Drogerien) do not sell any kind of medication, not even aspirin. Even over-the-counter (rezeptfrei) medications for minor health concerns, such as a cold or upset stomach, are only available at an Apotheke (pharmacy).
  • For more serious conditions, you will need to produce a Rezept (prescription) from a licensed physician. If you take regular medication, be sure to bring a full supply for your entire trip, as the same brand may not be available in Germany.
  • The names and addresses of pharmacies open after hours (these rotate) are posted in every pharmacy window, or call 011 41 for a recorded message of after-hour and Sunday pharmacies.

Tourism

The development of Berlin’s tourism sector since 1990 has been a major success story. The German capital has become one of the top travel destinations in international city tourism. With tourism spending contributing €11.6 billion to the capital and providing 235,000 full-time jobs in purely statistical terms, tourism has long been one of the main pillars of the city’s economy. Today, tourism in Berlin is a major influence on the cityscape and urban culture, so much so that this sector is also strategically importance for the entire city’s development and the quality of life of its residents. However, for some time now the global development of tourism has been caught up in an increasingly dynamic process of change, and this also impacts the future of Berlin’s tourism sector. With an annual turnover of 11.6 billion Euros, and approx. 235,000 jobs, the tourism industry is one of the city’s most important industries. The number of overnight stays has been on the rise for years, growing more than almost any other metropolis. In 2018 it grew to 32.9 million – a record. Berlin has firmly established itself among the top three travel destinations in Europe and, as the largest German cultural metropolis, is the most popular city travel destination in Germany. The relatively low price level favors this development: Berlin is an affordable world city.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin

https://planetexpat.org/destinations/work-in-berlin/

https://www.planetware.com/tourist-attractions-/berlin-d-bn-ber.htm

https://about.visitberlin.de/sites/default/files/2018-07/Berlin%20Tourism%20Plan%202018%2B_summary_EN.pdf

https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/pms/2019/19-02-08.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20130809185135/http://budapest.hu/Lapok/Fovaros/Testvervarosok.aspx

http://www.um.warszawa.pl/node/2920?page=0,0

https://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb146.html#t5

https://www.dw.com/en/hollywood-helps-revive-berlins-former-movie-glory/a-3549403

https://www.berliner-zeitung.de/mensch-metropole/rekord-in-der-hauptstadt-in-berlin-gibt-es-so-viele-beschaeftigte-wie-nie-zuvor-li.6134

http://www.morgenpost.de/wirtschaft/article208628997/Immer-mehr-Konzerne-suchen-den-Spirit-Berlins.html

https://www.berliner-zeitung.de/wirtschaft-verantwortung/arbeitsmarkt-in-berlin-berlin-hat-so-wenig-arbeitslose-wie-seit-24-jahren-nicht-li.6137

https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/36651/umfrage/arbeitslosenquote-in-deutschland-nach-bundeslaendern/

http://www.berlin.de/aktuelles/berlin/2674414-958092-berlin-ist-aelter-als-gedacht-hausreste-.html

Cape Town

Introduction

Cape Town is the legislative capital of South Africa and the second-most populous city in the country, after Johannesburg. The city lies at the southern end of the Cape Peninsula, in the bowl of Table Mountain,  and it is colloquially called the Mother City due to the fact that it was the site of the first European settlement in South Africa.

Cape Town is the largest city of the Western Cape province and forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The other two capitals of the country are located in Pretoria and Bloemfontein but it is in Cape Town where the Parliament of South Africa sits.

The origin of the city goes back to 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a refreshment station for its ships on their trade route to the Far East. The location was magnificent, between mountain and sea, fertile and well-watered so the company started to release men from its employees so that they could become free burghers (citizens), who then with the introduction of political exiles from the Dutch East Indies (Asia Peninsular), and marriage, cohabitation with indigenous Khoekhoe (whom the Dutch called Hottentots) and imported slaves increased the population and its culture. A larger number of French refugees, fleeing religious persecution, began to arrive in the Cape after leaving their country as a result of the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685), which revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598) that had granted religious toleration to Protestants. Many of these settlers were allocated farms in an area later called Franschhoek, Dutch for “French corner” which has grown into the Capes renowned wineries. By the beginning of the 18th century, the town became known as De Kaap (“The Cape”). The British force occupied the Cape in 1795 briefly and reoccupied the Cape in 1806, and its title was confirmed in 1814 by being permanently ceded to the United Kingdom. With significant expansion came calls for greater independence from the UK, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Where Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise.

Today Cape Town is a modern city with high rise office buildings and malls. It is a major cosmopolitan, political and economic centre.

The climate of Cape Town is Mediterranean in type. The average high temperature is 21° C, in January and February, and the average low is 13° C in July, but temperatures are cooler on the mountain slopes and on the coast.

Data and Facts

  • Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape’s population
  • There are 11 official languages including English, Afrikaans, Xhosa, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda and Zulu. English, however is  the language of commerce, banking, government and official documents.
  • The town had Jews among its early settlers but the rules of the company, however, allowed only Protestants as settlers so nowadays the population is mainly Christian.
  • The GDP this year is US$78.7billion and US$ 19,656 per capita.
  • In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph
  • Head of state: President Cyril Ramaphosa, since 2018
  • Currency: South African Rand
  • Country motto: Diverse people unite
  • Median age: 27.4 years
  • Life Expectancy: 64.1 years

Administration

Cape Town is governed by a city council composed by 231 members, elected in a system of mixed-member proportional representation. The city is divided into 116 wards, each of which elects a councillor. The remaining 115 councillors are elected from party lists so that the total number of councillors for each party is proportional to the number of votes received by that party.

The mayor of the city, currently Dan Plato, has largely ceremonial duties, and an executive committee of council members is directly responsible for the administration of the city. During the 1990s was established a transitional provincial committee for the local government.

Economy

Historically, Cape Town was the hub of South Africa economy until the discovery and explotation of minerals in the interior of the county. Today, however, is considered South Africa’s second main economic centre and the third main economic hub city in Africa. Its industry and seaport, Table Bay, produce and distribute about  nine-tenths of the fish eaten in the country. A petroleum and chemical refinery, fertilizer, cement, and automobile-assembly factories are situated in the metropolitan area.

The basic industries are connected with ship repair and maintenance, food processing, wine making and with the manufacture of clothing, plastics, and leather goods. Finance and business services are industries in which  also Cape Town’s economy has the largest comparative advantage.

Finally, the Tourism in the city is of growing importance. Cape Town has recently enjoyed a booming in real estate and construction, mostly because of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Many people is buying summer homes in the city or relocating there permanently. In 2010, over 1.5 million tourists visited the area and nowadays the tourism industry accounts 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province’s workforce.

Business Environment

Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space. Said district is currently under an extensive urban renewal program, with numerous new buildings and renovations taking place under the guidance of the Cape Town Partnership.

Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, shipping companies, petrochemicals, architects and advertising agencies but the most notable companies headquartered in the city are food and fashion retailer.

In 2011 the city’s GDP was US$56.8 billion with a GDP per Capita of US$15,721. In the five years preceding 2014 Cape Town GDP grew at an average of 3.7% a year. As a proportion of GDP, the agriculture and manufacturing sectors, business services, transport and logistics have grown considerably. 

Infrastructure

Most of Cape Town’s electricity is produced at the national Electricity Supply Commission’s nuclear power station at Koeberg, north of the city. Cape Town has its own coal-fired power station and two gas turbines to assist in emergencies and at peak periods. A hydroelectric facility at Steenbras also generates power when needed. The city’s water comes from Riviersonderend, Voëlvlei, and Wemmershoek. 

Port

Cape Town has a long tradition as a port city. Its port, situated in Table Bay, is a major transport node in South Africa and handles about five million tons of cargo annually. In addition, it also serves as a repair site for ships and oil rings. 

The Ben Schoeman Dock also accommodates container traffic.

Airport

Cape Town International Airport serves both domestic and international flights. It is the second-largest airport in South Africa. Although the bulk of its flights are domestic, Cape Town has regularly scheduled services to Southern Africa, East Africa, Mauritius, Middle East, Far East, Europe and EE.UU.

The airport recently opened a new terminal to handled the expected increase of air traffic due to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The airport’s cargo facilities are also being expanded and several large empty lots are being developed into office space and hotels.

Rail

Cape Town is the terminus of a railway network that extends northward to Zimbabwe and beyond. Two main radial freeways lead southward to False Bay and two national routes circle the central business district. 

A Metro rail also operates as a commuter rail service in Cape Town and the surrounding area. The Metro-rail network consists of 96 stations throughout the suburbs and outskirts of Cape Town.

Road

Cape Town suffers from the worst traffic congestion in South Africa. The city is the origin of three national roads. The N1 that runs East-North-East and connects Cape Town to major cities like Pretoria or Johannesburg; the N2 that runs East-South-Ease through and the N7 that runs north, initially as a highway.

Buses and Taxis

Golden Arrow Bus Services operates scheduled bus services in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Several companies run long-distance bus services from Cape Town to the other cities in South Africa.

In regards the Taxis,Cape Town has two kinds: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Unlike many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called to a specific location.

Minibus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private vehicles.

Technology

With the highest number of successful Information Technology companies in Africa, Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent. Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010, nationwide the IT industry in Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city’s economy. 

In addition, the city was recently named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Those aged between 18 and 64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business. Cape Town has become the Silicon Valley of South Africa, hosting innovative tech startups such as Jumo, Yoco, Aerobotics, Luno and The Sun Exchange.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

Public primary and secondary schools in Cape Town are run by the Western Cape Education Department. This provincial department is divided into seven districts. There are also many private schools, both religious and secular, in Cape Town. The most renowned institution of higher learning is Diocesan College, founded in 1849, and located in Rondebosch.

Cape Town is served by three public universities: the University of Cape Town, also in Rondebosch, has always demanded the right to admit students of all races, based on academic merit, and an increasing number of nonwhites are being accepted, the University of the Western Cape, originally built to serve the coloured community and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

Many residents of the city also study by correspondence courses offered by the University of South Africa.

Health

The city’s Health Department offers comprehensive health services and runs a system of polyclinics and specialized clinics. Public hospitals are the responsibility of the broader provincial administration. Groote Schuur Hospital, where the world’s first heart transplant took place, is one of South Africa’s largest hospitals. There are other smaller provincial hospitals and an increasing number of private hospitals in the city. 

Media

There are several newspapers, magazines and printing facilities in the city. Independent News and Media publishes the major English language papers in the city, the Cape Argus and the Cape Times.

Naspers, the largest media conglomerate in South Africa, publishes Die Burger, the major Afrikaans language paper.

Cape Town has also many local community newspapers and is also a centre for broadcast media with several radio stations.

Music

Cape Town music scene is very rich and creative. It is considered a music lover paradise as you can find a cosmopolitan variation of world – class jazz, folk, rock, hip hop, afro-funk, indie and electronic stiles. In general, the music in South Africa includes both popular and folk forms like Zuku Isicathamiya singing and harmonic mbaqanga.

Museums

Recognized as the World Design Capital in 2014, the art and design scene in Cape Town is flourishing. There are big museums like Zeitz MOCAA and small galleries such as Southern Guild. But Cape Town it’s not only about the art, the city has a number of unmissable historic and cultural museums that showcase the country’s deep and complex cultural history—from sites such as Nelson Mandela’s former cell to a less-expected museum that showcases the country’s Jewish heritage.

Sports

Cape Town’s most popular sports are cricket, football, swimming and rugby.

In rugby union, Cape Town is the home of the Western Province side, who play at Newlands Stadium and compete in the Currie Cup.

Association football, which is also known as soccer in South Africa, is also very popular. There are two clubs in the town that play in the Premiere Soccer League, the Ajax Cape Town and the Cape Town Spurs.

In cricket, the Cape Cobras represent Cape Town at the Newlands Cricket Ground.

References

https://www.encyclopedia.com/places/africa/south-african-political-geography/cape-town 

https://www.britannica.com/place/Cape-Town/Administration-and-social-conditions 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Town 

https://www.westerncape.gov.za/ 

https://www.capetown.gov.za/ 

https://wazimap.co.za/profiles/municipality-CPT-city-of-cape-town/#citations

http://www.worlddesigncapital.com/press-releases/cape-town-hosts-official-world-design-capital-2014-signing-ceremony/

http://cape-slavery-heritage.iblog.co.za/2009/05/01/coloured-people-of-the-western-cape-have-the-most-diverse-ancestry-in-the-world/

https://www.ssrc.org/pages/A-Contested-Past-and-Present-Australian-Trees-in-South-Africa/

https://digitalcollections.lib.uct.ac.za/coloured-labour-preference-area-policy-paper-presented-cape-western-region-national-conference-1983

http://www.capetownmagazine.com/cape-confidential/14-fun-facts-you-didnt-know-about-cape-town/123_22_19306

http://www.worldweather.org/035/c00138.htm

http://www.rosebuds.co.za/Toere/Cape%20Town.htm

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/slavery/slavery.htm

ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/RA-I/UA/68816.TXT

https://web.archive.org/web/20090301174424/http://www.antiquityofman.com/Peers_Cave.html

Singapore

Introduction

Located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula, Singapore’s tropical climate welcomes both leisure and business travelers year round. Though physically small, Singapore is an economic giant. It has been Southeast Asia’s most modern city for over a century. The city blends Malay, Chinese, Arab, Indian and English cultures and religions. Its unique ethnic tapestry affords visitors a wide array of sightseeing and culinary opportunities from which to choose. A full calendar of traditional festivals and holidays celebrated throughout the year adds to its cultural appeal. In addition, Singapore offers luxury hotels, delectable cuisine and great shopping! The island nation of the Republic of Singapore lies one degree north of the Equator in Southern Asia. The country includes the island of Singapore and 58 or so smaller islands. Because of its efficient and determined government, Singapore has become a flourishing country that excels in trade and tourism and is a model to developing nations. The capital city, also called Singapore, covers about a third of the area of the main island.

Data and facts

  • Singapore is one of only three surviving city-states in the world. The other two are Monaco and the Vatican City.
  • The current population of Singapore is 5,839,239 as of Saturday, April 4, 2020, based on Worldometer elaboration of the latest United Nations data.
  • Singapore population is equivalent to 0.08% of the total world population. Singapore ranks number 114 in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population. The population density in Singapore is 8358 per Km2 (21,646 people per mi2). The total land area is 700 Km2 (270 sq. miles).  
  • Singapore is among the 20 smallest countries in the world, with a total land area of only 682.7 square kilometers. The United States is about 15,000 times bigger.
  • The red of Singapore’s flag represents universal brotherhood and equality of man while the white symbolizes purity and virtue. The crescent moon stands for a young nation on the rise and the five stars signify the ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality.
  • The national language of Singapore is Malay. The four official languages of the country are English, Chinese, Tamil, and Malay.
  • Buildings in Singapore cannot be higher than 280 metres. Currently, there are three buildings of that height – OUB Centre, UOB Plaza and Republic Plaza.
  • Singapore’s Bukit Timah Nature Reserve holds more species of trees than the entire North American continent.
  • Singapore’s national anthem is in micro-text on the back of their $1,000 note.

Administration

As one of the ‘four little dragons’, Singapore’s rapid economic growth and success during the past two decades is well known. One of the major factors contributing to Singapore’s political stability and economic prosperity is the quality of its public administration. Indeed, its public bureaucracy and bureaucrats are perceived to be honest, efficient and effective in the performance of their functions and duties. 

The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, which is made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore. Although the President acts in his/her personal discretion in the exercise of certain functions as a check on the Cabinet and Parliament of Singapore, his/her role is largely ceremonial. It is the Cabinet, composed of the Prime Minister and other Ministers appointed on his/her advice by the President, that generally directs and controls the Government. The Cabinet is formed by the political party that gains a simple majority in each general election. A statutory board is an autonomous agency of the Government that is established by an Act of Parliament and overseen by a government ministry. Unlike ministries and government departments that are subdivisions of ministries, statutory boards are not staffed by civil servants and have greater independence and flexibility in their operations.

Economy

The economy of Singapore is a highly developed free-market economy. Singapore’s economy has been ranked as the most open in the world, 3rd least corrupt, most pro-business, with low tax rates (14.2% of gross domestic product (GDP)) and has the third highest per-capita GDP in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). APEC is headquartered in Singapore. Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys an open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on Singapore’s vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors.

Infrastructure

Singapore’s economic growth over the past 50+ years has produced a robust infrastructure ecosystem, including developers, financiers, professional services and other supporting services. Scroll down to unveil Singapore’s evolution into Asia’s infrastructure hub through the photos below. With world-renowned expertise in areas such as project structuring, management, financing and investment, Singapore-based developers can work closely with governments and other stakeholders to bring a project from conceptualization to completion. As a thriving financial hub, Singapore now serves as the Asia-Pacific base for many global banks with project finance lending and advisory specialization – with about 60% of project finance transactions in Southeast Asia lead-managed by Singapore-based banks.

Technology

Singapore’s plug-and-play business environment lets tech companies hit the ground running almost immediately. In Singapore, businesses get instant access to one of the most technologically advanced IT infrastructures in the world. In fact, Singapore was ranked first in digital infrastructure in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s latest Asian Digital Transformation Index. Companies can tap into that infrastructure to easily test and pilot new products as soon as they set up their WiFi network.  The 2017 Global Innovation Index ranked Singapore as the most innovative country in Asia, while the 2017 Bloomberg Innovation Index ranked Singapore sixth globally. That’s a big reason why companies like Amazon and IBM are using Singapore to pilot groundbreaking new projects before they roll them out globally.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

Primary school lasts for 6 years and secondary school lasts for 4 years, preparing children to move to a junior college (in preparation for university) or a polytechnic (for vocational training and adult learning). In 2018, there were 145 government primary schools and 41 primary schools receiving government funding in the country. Thanks to the emphasis on education, almost all (around 97%) of Singapore’s population over the age of 15 is literate. Singapore is a global leader for reading and science proficiency, ranking above Japan.

 Health

Government healthcare facilities are primarily designed to provide subsidised healthcare services to Singaporeans. These facilities consist of a number of government hospitals for inpatient services and numerous polyclinics offering outpatient services. Although wholly owned by the government, the public sector hospitals are operated as private limited companies in order to compete with the private sector on service and quality. Government healthcare facilities not only provide very good healthcare services to masses but also handle the most complicated cases referred from other hospitals and neighboring countries.

Private healthcare facilities in Singapore are as good as any in the world with excellent level of medical care and service levels. For non-Singaporeans, the difference in cost between government and private healthcare facilities is negligible as they directly compete with each other. Since private healthcare facilities in general offer better service level and minimum waiting times, most of the expatriates living in Singapore (as well as medical tourists from abroad) prefer to visit a private healthcare facility.

Tourism

The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) is a statutory board under the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Singapore. It champions the development of Singapore’s tourism sector, one of the country’s key service sectors and economic pillars, and undertakes the marketing and promotion of Singapore as a tourism destination. The tourism sector currently contributes 4 per cent to Singapore’s gross domestic product. Tourism plays an essential role in reinforcing Singapore’s status as a vibrant global city that is a magnet for capital, businesses and talent. It also enhances the quality and diversity of leisure options for local residents and helps to create a living environment that Singaporeans can be proud to call home.

References

https://www.edb.gov.sg/

https://www.internations.org/go/moving-to-singapore/education

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-24873-5_3

https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/singapore-population/

https://www.singaporeexpats.com/about-singapore/about-singapore.htm

https://www.reuters.com/brandfeatures/infrastructure2030/singapore-hub

http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/2019-human-development-index-ranking

https://web.archive.org/web/20070323095958/http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/Singapore/Singapore-History.html

http://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2017/09/08/editorial-the-mighty-red-dot.html

https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-remains-top-asian-city-for-meetings

Seoul

Introduction

Seoul, the capital of South Korea, is a huge metropolis where modern skyscrapers, high-tech subways and pop culture meet Buddhist temples, palaces and street markets. Notable attractions include futuristic Dongdaemun Design Plaza, a convention hall with curving architecture and a rooftop park; Gyeongbokgung Palace, which once had more than 7,000 rooms; and Jogyesa Temple, site of ancient locust and pine trees. Seoul, the capital of South Korea, is a city that has an official history of 600 years. It is famous for many reasons. It is considered the historical center of the country, according to the Seoul Metropolitan Government. The city was previously called Hanyang and Gyeongseongbu, and then renamed Seoul in 1945, when it was freed from Japanese occupation.

Data and facts

  • Seoul is a huge city that is home to more than 10 million people. It ranks second to Tokyo in population density. The 23 million inhabitants of the greater metropolitan area amount to about half the population of the country. 
  • In 2014, Seoul was the world’s 4th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635 billion after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles.
  • In the late 19th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul opened its gates to foreigners and began to modernize.
  • Seoul is considered to have the best Internet infrastructure and connections in the world, with widespread cellphone coverage and Internet cafes throughout the metropolis.
  • Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine, Namhansanseong and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty.
  • In 18 BC, the kingdom of Baekje founded its capital city, Wiryeseong, which is believed to be inside modern-day Seoul.
  • Changdeokgung Palace is the most well-preserved of the five remaining royal palaces in South Korea. Construction of Changdeok Palace began in 1405, and was completed in 1412. The Palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasion in 1592 and reconstructed in 1609 by King Seonjo and King Gwanghaegun.
  • Lotte World is a major recreation complex in Seoul. It consists of the world’s largest indoor theme park, an outdoor amusement park called “Magic Island”, an artificial island inside a lake linked by monorail, shopping malls, a luxury hotel, a Korean folk museum, sports facilities, and movie theaters. Opened on July 12, 1989, Lotte World receives 7.3 million visitors each year.

Administration

The Seoul Metropolitan Government is a local government of Seoul, South Korea. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by the Seoul citizens and is responsible for the administration of the city government. Seoul Metropolitan Government deals with administrative affairs as the capital city of South Korea, so it is more centralized than that of most other cities with the city government being responsible for correctional institutions, public education, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

In the city government, there are 5 offices, 32 bureaus, and 107 divisions. The headquarters is located in the Seoul City Hall building which is in Taepyeongno, Jung-gu, Seoul. The Government started on September 28, 1946 as the Seoul City Government which became Seoul Metropolitan Government on August 15, 1949. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has one mayor and three vice mayors, two of them take charge of administrative affairs and the other for political affairs. Seoul is subdivided into 25 autonomous gu and 522 administrative dong.

Economy

Seoul is the business and financial hub of South Korea. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of the nation’s land area, 48.3 percent of South Korea’s bank deposits were held in Seoul in 2003, and the city generated 23 percent of the country’s GDP overall in 2012. In 2008 the Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index ranked Seoul No.9. The Global Financial Centres Index in 2015 listed Seoul as the 6th financially most competitive city in the world. The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Seoul 15th in the list of “Overall 2025 City Competitiveness” regarding future competitiveness of cities.

Infrastructure

South Korea has a very advanced and modern infrastructure, which has been expanding since the 1960s. Both the South Korean government and the private sector are involved in the financing, construction, and operation of various infrastructure projects and services. Over the first 20 years of the 21st century, the government will spend more than US$300 billion on airports, roads, railways, and mega-resorts. Additionally, it will spend US$60 billion on the construction of more than 100 new power-generation facilities.

South Korea has an extensive and well-kept system of roads. In 1998, it boasted 64,808 kilometers (40,272 miles) of paved roads, including 1,996 kilometers (1,240 miles) of expressways, and 22,182 kilometers (13,784 miles) of unpaved roads. There are several major north-south and east-west highways, but the growing number of vehicles in use puts heavy pressure on the land transport network. The number of private cars rose from fewer than 500,000 in the early 1980s to 7.581 million in 1999 when there were also 2.1 million trucks and 749,000 buses in use. To deal with the growing pressure on roads, the South Korean government has initiated a multibillion dollar project to expand the highways. Land transportation also includes regular train and bus services around the country. The railways consist of 6,240 kilometers (3,878 miles) of standard gauge tracks of which 525 kilometers (326 miles) are electrified.

Technology

Seoul is one of the most connected and technologically innovative cities on Earth. There are places all over the city to check out the newest offerings from Korea’s tech giants such as Samsung and LG, and media installations incorporating state-of-art information technology are common. Especially futuristic ICT (Information, Communication, and Technology) experiences at locations such as the Digital Pavilion (under construction) and Samsung D’light are intriguing and futuristic.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Education

There are six years of primary school, three years of lower secondary school and three years of upper secondary school, which is either academic or vocational. 

Health

Apart from Western-style hospitals, there is also a wide range of Eastern medicine hospitals that cater to those who wish to relieve their symptoms through more holistic practices such as acupuncture. Many of the universities in Seoul have hospitals attached and there are a number of private clinics as well. Some of the most reputable hospitals in Seoul include: Asan Medical Center, Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine, Gangnam St Mary’s Hospital, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul National University Hospital, and Severance Hospital. 

Tourism

Seoul, South Korea is a vibrant and exciting city, one that deftly combines ancient history with ultra-modern design and technology. The city is filled with a wide range of tourist attractions of all types, from outdoor adventures like exploring Mount Namsan and its surrounding park to indoor fun like visiting one of Seoul’s many museums. Seoul is also a city of palaces, with five huge palace complexes located throughout the city and now restored to their former glory. Of course it’s also known for its food, with a mouthwatering array of street food, Korean specialties like barbecue, and fine-dining options.

References

https://www.globaltenders.com/economy-of-south-korea.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seoul

https://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Korea-South-INFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.html

https://www.planetware.com/south-korea/top-rated-tourist-attractions-in-seoul-kor-1-3.htm

https://www.expatarrivals.com/asia-pacific/south-korea/seoul/healthcare-seoul

http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/

https://web.archive.org/web/20161031211814/http://english.visitseoul.net/tours/Brief-History-of-Hangang-River_/4624

http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20160516000741

http://spp.seoul.go.kr/cms/board/Download.jsp?fileId=IUAjJDMyMTY1LS0kJA==

https://web.archive.org/web/20150923172419/http://www.anthropology.hawaii.edu/People/Faculty/Stark/pdfs/AP1999%20article.pdf

http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_1_1_1.jsp?cid=1061818

Boston

Introduction

Boston is the capital of the Massachusetts State in USA. It the most populous city in Massachusetts. It also is the economic and cultural center hub of a significantly larger area known as Greater Boston. This city holds a considerable position in the history of the USA. So, Boston also attracts a large number of tourists every each.

Boston is the epitome of education, innovation and scientific research in the USA. Boston is also among the costliest city to live in the US. Boston is also known as the “city of neighborhoods” because it is contiguously bordered by many cities and towns.

Data and Facts

  •  As of 2018, Boston has a population of 694,583.
  •  Boston’s density is 13,841 people/square miles
  •  Median Family Income of Boston is $61,035
  •  Boston’s per capita income is $33,158
  •  It has an area of 89.63 square miles.
  •  21.4% of people are below the poverty line.
  •  Boston attracts 21.2 million visitors every year.
  •  As of 2016, 33.8% of households don’t have a car.
  •  13% of people commute by foot.
  •  3rd densely populated city of the US.

Administration

Boston has a mayor-council government system in which the mayor has extensive executive power. The Boston City Council is elected every two years. There are nine district seats in Boston and four citywide seats. As Boston is the capital of Massachusetts, it plays a substantial role in state politics. Boston has also a significant amount of federal institutions which play a vital role in the life of Bostonians.

Economy

Boston has consistently maintained itself in the top 30 most economically powerful cities in the world. Boston has the 6th largest economy in the US, enclosing $363 billion. It has also the 12th largest economy in the world. Colleges and Universities in Boston play a crucial role in its economy. The foreign students, who are around 350,000 in numbers, contribute $4.8 billion annually in Boston’s economy. Boston is the pivot for biotechnology and is home to various technology companies.

Boston is regarded as highly innovative for various reasons, including the visibility of academia, access to venture capital, and the existence of many high-tech companies. Boston is a hub for venture capital investment and the city’s supremacy in advance technology remains an important sector. Tourism also comprises a great part of Boston’s economy. Alone in 2011, 21.2 million domestic and international visitors spent $8.3 billion in this city.

Business Environment

Boston is regarded to be a universal pioneer in innovation and entrepreneurship. Boston has nearly 5,000 startups, as of 2016. Boston’s strong academia which comprises of law, engineering, scientific research, and business, attracts thousands of startups every year. Boston is the flourishing center of various types of scientific research. Boston provides various opportunities to connect face-to-face with many entrepreneurs, service providers and the community at large. There are many great entrepreneurs who have laid the blueprints by pioneering playbooks for building great companies.

Infrastructure

Boston is also known as “The Walking City” because it has the highest number of commuters in comparison to any other city of its stature. Boston is ranked as the 5th city of the USA with the highest public transit users.

Technology

Boston is a thriving center for technology innovations. With the presence of universities and colleges like Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard, Tufts, Northeastern, BU and Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston is a hub for advance research in science and technology. Many tech giants like Facebook, Twitter, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Amazon, and Google have a significant presence in Boston.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Health

Most of the healthcare facilities in Boston are associated with universities. The Longwood Medical and Academic Area is home to a large number of medical and research facilities, including Boston Children’s Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. A government agency named BPHC supervises the health problems of the people.

Media

The Boston Herald and the Boston Globe are two of Boston’s most-read daily newspapers. Apart from them, Metro and DigBoston are also served in the city. Boston has the 9th largest radio market in the US.

Sports

Boston has won a total of 39 championships in many different leagues, as of 2019. Boston’s universities and colleges are active in athletics. The Boston Marathon, held in April on Patriots’ Day, is the most significant sporting event of the city. It is a 26.2-mile-long race and one of the oldest annual marathon of the globe.

References

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston

http://www.bostonplans.org/getattachment/33993523-dce0-4cfd-903c-5eb8744733e8 

https://www.britannica.com/place/Boston/Economy 

https://www.wgbh.org/news/2017/08/30/local-news/beantown-hub-how-did-boston-earn-its-nicknames 

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/02/22/metro/sacred-cow-bostons-education-landscape/

http://www.thetravelerszone.com/travel-destinations/top-25-most-visited-tourist-destinations-in-america/

https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/bbj_research_alert/2012/11/bostons-population-stays-flat-but.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20160408104240/http://nvca.org/research/venture-investment/

http://www.sec.state.ma.us/mhc/mhcexh/exhidx.htm

http://www.nps.gov/boaf/