Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region. It was founded on April 21, 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's third-most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, it has the highest GDP per capita. The landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx.
The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector, and the Embassy Sector. Because of its unique city plan and architecture, as well as its unprecedented role in the development of the Brazilian interior, Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning. It was named «City of Design» by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then.
The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and some international destinations, and it is the third-busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city. It was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympics; it also hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.
The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of which is the area of the originally planned city, also called Plano Piloto.
Data and Facts
- As of May 2019, the population of Brasília is about 3 million people. It is the 3rd most populous city in Brazil
- The city covers a total area of 5,802 square kilometers (2,240 square miles)
- Brasília lies at an elevation of 1,172 meters (3,845 feet) above sea level
- Brasília was constructed in just 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960
- Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city
- Brasília has a tropical savanna climate, with two distinct seasons: the rainy season, from October to April, and a dry season, from May to September
Brasília does not have mayor and councillors, because the article 32 of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution expressly prohibits that the Federal District be divided in municipalities, since it is itself considered a munnicipality.
The Federal District is a legal entity of internal public law, which is part of the political-administrative structure of Brazil of a sui generis nature, because it is neither a state nor a municipality, but rather a special entity that accumulates the legislative powers reserved to the states and municipalities, as provided in Article 32, § 1 of the Constitution, which gives it a hybrid nature, both state and municipality.
The executive power of the Federal District was represented by the mayor of the Federal District until 1969, when the position was transformed into governor of the Federal District.
The judicial power which serves the Federal District also serves federal territories as it is constituted, but Brazil does not have any territories currently. Therefore, the Court of Justice of the Federal District and of the Territories only serves the Federal District.
Part of the budget of the Federal District Government comes from the Constitutional Fund of the Federal District. In 2012, the fund totaled 9.6 billion reais.
Until 1990 the governor of the Federal District was appointed by the Brazilian president and confirmed by the Senate. In that year, in keeping with provisions of the 1988 constitution, Joaquim Domingos Roriz was chosen in the first election for district governor. Reporting to the governor are numerous secretaries responsible for public works, welfare, education, law enforcement, and other concerns. The Senate acts as the legislative branch of local government.
The major roles of construction and of services in Brasília’s economy reflect the city’s status as a governmental rather than an industrial centre. Industries connected with construction, food processing, and furnishings are important, as are those associated with publishing, printing, and computer software. Many nationwide companies and associations have headquarters there.
The major roles of construction and of services in Brasília's economy reflect the city's status as a governmental rather than an industrial center. Industries connected with construction, food processing, and furnishings are important, as are those associated with publishing, printing, and computer software. The gross domestic product is divided into Public Administration 54.8%, Services 28.7%, Industry 10.2%, Commerce 6.1%, Agrobusiness 0.2%.Besides being the political center, Brasília is an important economic center. Brasília has the highest GDP of cities in Brazil, 99.5 billion reais,[representing 3.76% of the total Brazilian GDP. Most economic activity in the federal capital results from its administrative function. Its industrial planning is studied carefully by the Government of the Federal District. Being a city registered by UNESCO, the government in Brasília has opted to encourage the development of non-polluting industries such as software, film, video, and gemology among others, with emphasis on environmental preservation and maintaining ecological balance, preserving the city property.
According to Mercer's city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, Brasília ranks 45th among the most expensive cities in the world in 2012, up from the 70th position in 2010, ranking behind São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro .
Entertainment – the shopping malls Conjunto Nacional, ParkShopping, Pátio Brasil Shopping, Brasília Shopping, Boulevard Shopping, Taguatinga Shopping, Terraço Shopping, Gilberto Salomão and Iguatemi Brasília.
Estructural dump, the main landfill
Industries in the city include construction ; food processing ; furniture making; recycling ; pharmaceuticals ; and graphic industries. The main agricultural products produced in the city are coffee, guavas, strawberries, oranges, lemons, papayas, soybeans, and mangoes. It has over 110,000 cows and it exports wood products worldwide.
The Federal District, where Brasília is located, has a GDP of R$133,4 billion , about the same as Belarus according to The Economist. Its share of the total Brazilian GDP is about 3.8%.
The Federal District has the largest GDP per capita income of Brazil US$25,062, slightly higher than Belarus.The city's planned design included specific areas for almost everything, including accommodation, Hotels Sectors North and South. New hotel facilities are being developed elsewhere, such as the hotels and tourism Sector North, located on the shores of Lake Paranoá.
Even though Brasilia is the capital city of Brazil, it is only the sixth largest city in the country. Brasilia has a «sui generis» status. It is not a municipality like almost all other cities of Brazil.
Since Brasilia is the seat of the government, its industries reflect its governmental status rather than economics. The main industries of the city are construction and services. The services industry includes government and legal services, banking and finance, food production, communication and entertainment. The services industry accounts for nearly 91% of the GDP of the city. The Brazilian government itself employs the largest number of people in the services sector.
Other industries that make a significant contribution to the economy of Brasilia are Information Technology and printing.
The landscape of the city and its surrounding areas makes it favorable for agriculture. The main agriculture products of the city are strawberries, lemons, oranges, mangoes, papaya, coffee, guava and soya beans.
The total Gross Domestic Product of the city stands at about $27.6 billion. The GDP of the city is divided as: 54.8% in Public Administration, 28.7% in services, 10.2% in industry, 6.1% in commerce and 0.6% in agriculture. Brasilia accounts for nearly 1.8% of the Brazilian GDP.
The city is home to several good universities and schools. Thus, availability of a skilled and qualified workforce is not a problem in the city. Brasilia is a planned city and thus, the infrastructure is world class. Rail, road and air networks connect Brasilia to all other major cities of the world. The telecommunication and other public services utilities are state of the art. The per capita income of the city is much higher than the national average.
Investing in the real estate of Brasilia is a good idea because the rents are always increasing and the price of real estate is constantly appreciating.
The ease of doing business varies in different Brazilian cities. Brasilia is ranked as the number one city for the ease of starting a business. Complying with regulations is so easy in Brasilia that you can start a business in just 45 days. The tax burden is also lesser in Brasilia compared to certain other cities of the country.
The plan of the central city has been likened to a bird, a bow and arrow, or an airplane. Designed by the Brazilian architect Lúcio Costa, its form is emphasized by the Highway Axis , which curves from the north to the southwest and links Brasília’s main residential neighbourhoods, and the straight Monumental Axis , which runs northwest-southeast and is lined by federal and civic buildings. At the northwestern end of the Monumental Axis are federal district and municipal buildings, while at the southeastern end, near the middle shore of Lake Paranoá, stand the executive, judicial, and legislative buildings around the Square of Three Powers, the conceptual heart of the city.These and other major structures were designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. In the Square of Three Powers, he created as a focal point the dramatic Congressional Palace, which is a composition of five parts: twin administrative towers flanked by a large, white concrete dome and by an equally massive concrete bowl , which is joined to the dome by an underlying, flat-roofed building. A series of low-lying annexes flank both ends. Also in the square are the glass-faced Planalto Palace and the Palace of the Supreme Court. Farther east, on a triangle of land jutting into the lake, is the Palace of the Dawn . Between the federal and civic buildings on the Monumental Axis is the city’s cathedral, considered by many to be Niemeyer’s finest achievement. The parabolically shaped structure is characterized by its 16 gracefully curving supports, which join in a circle 115 feet above the floor of the nave; stretched between the supports are translucent walls of tinted glass. The nave is entered via a subterranean passage rather than conventional doorways. Other notable buildings are Buriti Palace, Itamaraty Palace , the National Theatre, and several foreign embassies that creatively embody features of their national architecture.Both low-cost and luxury housing were built by the government in the central city area. The residential zones of the inner city are arranged into superquadras , groups of apartment buildings along with a prescribed number and type of schools, retail stores, and open spaces. At the northern end of Lake Paranoá, separated from the inner city, is a peninsula upon which stand many fashionable homes; a similar neighbourhood exists on the southern lakeshore. Originally, the city planners envisioned extensive public areas along the shores of the artificial lake, but, during early development of the area, private clubs, hotels, and upscale residences and restaurants gained footholds around the water. Set well apart from the city are suburban «satellite towns,» including Gama, Ceilândia, Taguatinga, Núcleo Bandeirante, Sobradinho, and Planaltina. These areas were not planned as permanent settlements and thus offer stark contrasts to the symmetry and spacing of Brasília.The city has been acclaimed for its use of modernist architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan; however, it has been roundly criticized for much the same reasons. After a visit to Brasília, the French writer Simone de Beauvoir complained that all of its superquadras exuded «the same air of elegant monotony,» and other observers have equated the city’s large open lawns, plazas, and fields to wastelands. As the city has matured, some of these have gained adornments, and many have been improved by landscaping, giving some observers a sense of «humanized» spaciousness.
The parabolically shaped structure is characterized by its 16 gracefully curving supports, which join in a circle 115 feet above the floor of the nave; stretched between the supports are translucent walls of tinted glass. The nave is entered via a subterranean passage rather than conventional doorways. Other notable buildings are Buriti Palace, Itamaraty Palace, the National Theater, and several foreign embassies that creatively embody features of their national architecture. The Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx designed landmark modernist gardens for some of the principal buildings.
Both low-cost and luxury buildings were built by the government in Brasília. The residential zones of the inner city are arranged into superquadras : groups of apartment buildings inspired in French modernist and bauhaus design and constructed with a prescribed number and type of schools, retail stores, and open spaces. In a not planned spaced in the northern end of Lake Paranoá, separated from the inner city, is a peninsula with many variables homes and a similar city exists on the southern lakeshore. Originally the city planners envisioned extensive public areas along the shores of the artificial lake, but during early development private clubs, hotels, and upscale residences and restaurants gained footholds around the water. Set well apart from the city are satellite cities, including Gama, Ceilândia, Taguatinga, Núcleo Bandeirante, Sobradinho, and Planaltina. These cities, with the exception of Gama and Sobradinho, were not planned.
The city has been both acclaimed and criticized for its use of modernist architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan.
After a visit to Brasília, the French writer Simone de Beauvoir complained that all of its superquadras exuded «the same air of elegant monotony», and other observers have equated the city's large open lawns, plazas, and fields to wastelands. As the city has matured, some of these have gained adornments, and many have been improved by landscaping, giving some observers a sense of «humanized» spaciousness. Although not fully accomplished, the «Brasília utopia» has produced a city of relatively high quality of life, in which the citizens live in forested areas with sporting and leisure structure surrounded by small commercial areas, bookstores and cafés; the city is famous for its cuisine and efficiency of transit.[
Even these positive features have sparked controversy, expressed in the nickname «ilha da fantasia» , indicating the sharp contrast between the city and surrounding regions, marked by poverty and disorganization in the cities of the states of Goiás and Minas Gerais, around Brasília.
Brasília–Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport serves the metropolitan area with major domestic and international flights. It is the third busiest Brazilian airport based on passengers and aircraft movements. Because of its strategic location it is a civil aviation hub for the rest of the country.
Taxis from the airport are available immediately outside the terminal, but at times there can be quite a queue of people. Although the airport is not far from the downtown area, taxi prices do seem to be higher than in other Brazilian cities. Booking in advance can be advantageous, particularly if time is limited, and local companies should be able to assist airport transfer or transport requirements.
The Juscelino Kubitschek bridge, also known as the 'President JK Bridge' or the 'JK Bridge', crosses Lake Paranoá in Brasília. It is named after Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, former president of Brazil. It was designed by architect Alexandre Chan and structural engineer Mário Vila Verde. Chan won the Gustav Lindenthal Medal for this project at the 2003 International Bridge Conference in Pittsburgh due to «...outstanding achievement demonstrating harmony with the environment, aesthetic merit and successful community participation».
It consists of three 60 m tall asymmetrical steel arches that crisscross diagonally. With a length of 1,200 m , it was completed in 2002 at a cost of US$56.8 million. The bridge has a pedestrian walkway and is accessible to bicyclists and skaters.
The Brasília Metro is Brasília's underground metro system. The system has 24 stations on two lines, the Orange and Green lines, along a total network of 42 km , covering some of the metropolitan area. Both lines begin at the Central Station and run parallel until the Águas Claras Station. The Brasília metro is not comprehensive so buses may provide better access to the center.
The metro leaves the Rodoviária and goes south, avoiding most of the political and tourist areas. The main purpose of the metro is to serve cities, such as Samambaia, Taguatinga and Ceilândia, as well as Guará and Águas Claras. The satellite cities served are more populated in total than the Plano Piloto itself , and most residents of the satellite cities depend on public transportation.
The main bus hub in Brasília is the Central Bus Station, located in the crossing of the Eixo Monumental and the Eixão, about 2 km from the Three Powers Plaza. The original plan was to have a bus station as near as possible to every corner of Brasília. Today, the bus station is the hub of urban buses only, some running within Brasília and others connecting Brasília to the satellite cities.
In the original city plan, the interstate buses would also stop at the Central Station.
Baghdad is the centre of higher education in Iraq. The University of Baghdad was established in 1957, although some of its faculties were founded much earlier. There are, in addition, three other institutions of higher learning: Al-Mustanṣiriyyah University , the University of Technology , and Al-Bakr Military Academy. Modern manufacturing began in the 1920s and ’30s, spurred by the Law for the Encouragement of Industry in 1929. Early factory production centred on textiles , food processing, brick making, and cigarettes. Beginning in the 1950s, the government used increased oil revenues to develop manufacturing industries. Subsequently the city produced a wide variety of consumer and industrial goods, including processed foods and beverages, tobacco, textiles, clothes, leather goods, wood products, furniture, paper and printed material, bricks and cement, chemicals, plastics, electrical equipment, and metal and nonmetallic products.
In late 2019 protesters took to the streets of Baghdad and other cities to demonstrate against the lack of economic improvement, government corruption, and foreign interference in domestic affairs. Iraqis were further enraged on December 29 when the United States conducted airstrikes in Iraq against an Iraqi militia with close ties to Iran. Two days later a group of protesters attacked the U.S. embassy in Baghdad.
Social Wellness and Human Resources
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, 2,469,489 people resided in Brasília and its metropolitan area,of whom 1,239,882 were Pardo , 1,084,418 White , 198,072 Black , 41,522 Asian , and 6,128 Amerindian . In 2010, Brasília was ranked the fourth-most populous city in Brazil after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador. In 2010, the city had 474,871 opposite-sex couples and 1,241 same-sex couples. By 2010 the population of the Federal District had surpassed 2,5 million. The city of Brasília proper, the plano piloto was planned for about 500,000 inhabitants, a figure the plano piloto never surpassed, with a current population of only 214,529. but its metropolitan area within the Federal District has grown past this figureFrom the beginning, the growth of Brasília was greater than original estimates. According to the original plans, Brasília would be a city for government authorities and staff. However, during its construction, Brazilians from all over the country migrated to the satellite cities of Brasília, seeking public and private employment.At the close of the 20th century, Brasília held the distinction of being the largest city in the world which had not existed at the beginning of the century.
Brasília's inhabitants include a foreign population of mostly embassy workers as well as large numbers of Brazilian internal migrants. Today, the city has important communities of immigrants and refugees. The city's Human Development Index was 0.936 in 2000 , and the city's literacy rate was around 95.65%.