Brisbane

Australia COUNTRY
2,514,184 CITY POPULATION
City Council GOVERNMENT TYPE

Contents

Introduction

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland,and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2.5 million, and the South East Queensland metropolitan region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million.The Brisbane central business district stands on the historic European settlement and is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges. It sprawls across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite", whilst common nicknames include "Brissy", "River City" and "Brisvegas".

One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. Named after the Brisbane River on which it is located—which in turn takes its name from Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales at the time of the city's founding—the area was chosen as a place for secondary offenders from the Sydney Colony. The Moreton Bay penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe, 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of the central business district, but was soon abandoned and moved to North Quay in 1825, opening to free settlement in 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a central role in the Allied campaign and served as the South West Pacific headquarters for United States Army General Douglas MacArthur.

A diverse city with 32.2% of its metropolitan population being foreign born, Brisbane is classified as a global city, and ranks highly in ratings of livable cities. Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the city's built heritage. The city is noted for its cuisine brunches, outdoor dining, and rooftop bar scene. Brisbane was also the origin of the Anzac Day tradition through the works of Canon David John Garland. Several large cultural, international and sporting events have been held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo '88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001, and the 2014 G-20 summit. A transportation hub, Brisbane is served by a large suburban rail network, popular bus and ferry networks as well as Australia's third-busiest airport and seaport.

Brisbane is a popular tourist destination, serving as a gateway to the state of Queensland, particularly to the Gold Coast and the Sunshine Coast, which are home to numerous popular surf beaches, located immediately south and north of Brisbane respectively. Major landmarks and attractions include South Bank Parklands, the Queensland Cultural Centre (including the Queensland Museum, Queensland Art Gallery, Gallery of Modern Art, Queensland Performing Arts Centre and State Library of Queensland), City Hall, the Story Bridge, the City Botanic Gardens and Parliament of Queensland, the Howard Smith Wharves, ANZAC Square, Fortitude Valley (including James Street and Chinatown), West End, the Teneriffe woolstores precinct, Roma Street Parkland, New Farm Park (including the Brisbane Powerhouse), St John's Cathedral, the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, the Mount Coot-tha Lookout and Botanic Gardens, the D'Aguilar Range and National Park, the Brisbane River and its Riverwalk network, as well as Moreton Bay (including Moreton, North Stradbroke and Bribie islands, and coastal suburbs such as Shorncliffe, Wynnum and those on the Redcliffe Peninsula).

Data and Facts

  • Brisbane is named after a former New South Wales governor who established the city’s original penal settlement in the 1820s. Sir Thomas Brisbane
  • Known for its A-League, Rugby and Rugby League clashes, Suncorp Stadium is actually built on the site of the city’s first cemetery, established in the 1840s
  • Brisbane was the busiest submarine port in the world during World War II. By December 1943, Brisbane was host to over 75,000 American troops
  • Brisbane City Hall is the largest city hall in Australia. The clock tower of City Hall is 92m high, with an observation platform at 76m
  • North Stradbroke Island and Moreton Island are the second and third-largest sand islands in the world
  • Sir Charles Kingsford Smith was the first man to fly across the Pacific and land in Brisbane. Brisbane born, Sir Charles Kingsford Smith left Oakland, California in 1928 bound for Australia

Administration

Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area, or Greater Capital City Statistical Area of Brisbane is controlled by a single local government area, the City of Brisbane. Since the creation of the City of Brisbane in 1925 the urban areas of Brisbane have expanded considerably past the council boundaries. The City of Brisbane local government area is by far the largest local government area in Australia, serving more than 40% of the GCCSA's population. It was formed by the merger of twenty smaller LGAs in 1925, and covers an area of 1,367 km2 . There is a directly-elected Lord Mayor, and a council composed of councillors representing 26 wards. City Hall is the seat of the Brisbane City Council, whilst the bulk of its executive offices are located at the Brisbane Square skyscraper. Following local government elections on 28 April 2012, the Lord Mayor and 18 councillors are members of the Liberal National Party while 7 are from the Labor Party with 1 independent. The day-to-day management of Council's operations is the responsibility of the chief executive officer who is currently Colin Jensen.

Elections are held every four years with ballots for the Lord Mayoralty and the individual councillors being held simultaneously. Voting is compulsory for all eligible electors. The election in March 2004 resulted in the unusual situation of Liberal Lord Mayor Campbell Newman co-existing with a Labor majority on Council and a Labor Deputy Mayor, though this resulted in remarkably few conflicts over civic budgets and Council policy. The LNP gained a 5.5% swing on the councillor votes in the March 2008 election, resulting in the Liberals taking control of the council as well . Graham Quirk won re-election as Lord Mayor in 2012 with 61.94% of the vote and the LNP gained an additional 3 wards. The last election was held on 19 March 2016. Lord Mayor Graham Quirk defeated Labor's candidate Rod Harding. All LGAs within the metropolitan area have a similar structure to the City of Brisbane LGA.

As the capital city of Queensland, Brisbane is home to the Parliament of Queensland at Parliament House at Gardens Point in the CBD, adjacent to Old Government House. Queensland's current Government House is located in Paddington. The bulk of the state government's executive offices are located at the 1 William Street skyscraper. The Queensland Supreme and District courts are located at the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in George Street, while the Magistrates court is located at the adjacent Brisbane Magistrates Court building. The various federal courts are loced at the Commonwealth Law Courts building on North Quay, Brisbane. The Australian Army's Enoggera Barracks is located in Enoggera, while the historic Victoria Barracks in Petrie Terrace now hosts a military museum. The Royal Australian Navy's HMAS Moreton base is located at Bulimba. The Royal Australian Air Force's RAAF Base Amberley is located in Amberley in the outer south-west of the metropolitan area.

Economy

Brisbane is Australia's New World City, with a $154 billion economy. On Australia's eastern seaboard, it is the closest capital city to Asia. The city's key sectors include mining and resources, information and communication technology, scientific innovation, creative industries, food and beverage, higher education, tourism infrastructure, manufacturing, logistics and distribution and aviation. Most major Australian companies and many international companies have offices in Brisbane, providing students with access to exciting job opportunities with some of the world's most well-known organisations.

Categorised as a global city, Brisbane is among Asia-Pacific cities with largest GDPs and is one of the major business hubs in Australia, with strengths in mining, banking, insurance, transportation, information technology, real estate and food. Brisbane throughout its history has been one of Australia's most important seaport cities. The Port of Brisbane located at the Brisbane River's mouth on Moreton Bay and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, created by means of land reclamation. It is the 3rd busiest port in Australia for value of goods.

Container freight, sugar, grain, coal and bulk liquids are the major exports. Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangroves and wetlands. The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast, which includes the Brisbane Airport along with large industrial estates located along both banks at the mouth of the Brisbane River.White-collar industries include information technology, financial services, higher education and public sector administration generally concentrated in and around the central business district and satellite hubs located in the inner suburbs such as South Brisbane, Fortitude Valley, Spring Hill, Milton and Toowong.

Blue-collar industries, including petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking and QR railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River proximal to the Port of Brisbane and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Tourism is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland, as international education, with over 95,000 international students enrolled in universities and other tertiary education institutions in the central Brisbane City Council local government area alone in 2018.

Retail in the CBD is centred around the Queen Street Mall, which is Australia's largeest pedestrian mall. Shopping centres in the CBD include the Myer Centre, the Wintergarden, MacArthur Central and QueensPlaza, with the last of these along with Edward Street forming the city's focus for luxury brands. There are historical shopping arcades at Brisbane Arcade and Tattersalls Arcade. Fortitude Valley adjacent to the CBD, and in particular James Street, is also a major inner-city retail hub.

Business Environment

Dun & Bradstreet Global Risk Indicator rates Australia as one of the safest countries in the world for investment. The continued internationalisation of the Brisbane economy, combined with a local pool of talent and a collaborative business culture, provides a strong, competitive environment for Brisbane’s economy to continue to outperform its neighbours. Brisbane’s progressive and far-sighted business and economic environment gives investors more confidence in their quest to optimise investment return. This confidence is built around Brisbane’s stable political environment, its proven and forecast population and economic growth, and ongoing public and private sector commitment to building a stronger economy and intellectual capital base. Australia’s economic growth remains solid, with the resources sector benefiting from China’s economic stimulus, a related jump in commodity prices and state governments spending up on infrastructure . The city’s $146 billion economy is predicted to grow to more than $217 billion by 2031, having been a key driver of the Australian economy as it enters its 26th year of continuous growth .Australia remained steadfast during one of the most turbulent periods of global modern economics, demonstrating remarkable resilience. During the worst of the global financial crisis, Australia maintained strong growth, outpacing all other advanced economies and securing a 22nd consecutive year of recession-free growth in 2013. The Queensland economy has consistently demonstrated above-average growth, growing at an average annual rate of 4 per cent real gross state product in 2016-17, 2.5 per cent above the Australian average . Australia has some of the best economic prospects in the developed world. With continued strong demand for its natural resources from emerging Asia, Australia is in an enviable position. Brisbane’s newest home for innovation, The Capital, was officially launched, opening its doors to up to 200 Brisbane startups. Lord Mayor Graham Quirk said the city’s $5 million investment into innovation, as outlined in the Brisbane 2022 New World City Action Plan, would create hundreds of new jobs of the future and boost Brisbane’s rapidly expanding startup community. Fishburners Chief Executive Murray Hurps said Brisbane was the ideal location for his company’s next Australian venture outside of its Sydney base.Little Tokyo Two Founder Jock Fairweather said there was no other space in Australia offering the entire startup, enterprise and business ecosystem in one single building. Cr Quirk said that nurturing Brisbane’s startup ecosystem and creating a dynamic innovation hub was one of seven key economic priorities outlined in the Brisbane 2022 New World City Action Plan.Brisbane City Council has signed an agreement with Fishburners and Little Tokyo Two as anchor tenants over five years with building redeveloper ISPT joining The Capital as a Founding Partner.

Infrastructure

Brisbane has an extensive transportation network within the city, as well as connections to regional centres, interstate and to overseas destinations. Like all Australian cities, the most popular mode of transport is private car. Public transport is provided by rail, bus and ferry services and is co-ordinated by TransLink, which provides a unified ticketing and electronic payment system for South East Queensland. The region is divided into seven fare zones radiating outwards from the Brisbane central business district , with Brisbane's built-up area falling within zones 1–3. Bus services are operated by public and private operators whereas trains and ferries are operated by public agencies. The CBD is the central hub for all public transport services with services focusing on Roma Street, Central and Fortitude Valley railway stations; King George Square, Queen Street and Roma Street busway stations; and North Quay, Riverside and QUT Gardens Point ferry wharves.

Brisbane is served by a large network of urban and inter-urban motorways. The Pacific Motorway connects the inner-city with the southern suburbs,Gold Coast and New South Wales. The Ipswich Motorway connects the inner-city with the outer south-western suburbs. The Western Freeway and Centenary Motorway connect the city's inner-west and outer south-west. The Bruce Highway and Gympie Arterial Road connect the city's northern suburbs with the Sunshine Coast and northern Queensland. The Logan Motorway connects the southern and south-western suburbs. The Gateway Motorway is a toll road which connects the Gold and Sunshine Coast. The Port of Brisbane Motorway links the Gateway Motorway to the Port of Brisbane. The Inner City Bypass and Riverside Expressway serve as an inner ring freeway system to prevent motorists from travelling through the city's congested centre.Brisbane also has a large network of major road tunnels under the metropolitan area, known as the TransApex network, which include the Clem Jones Tunnel between the inner-north and inner-south, the Airport Link tunnel in the north-east and the Legacy Way tunnel in the south-west. The three Houghton Highway bridges, over Bramble Bay between Brighton and the Redcliffe Peninsula, are the longest bridges in the state.

The Queensland Rail City network consists of 152 train stations along 13 suburban rail lines and across the metropolitan area, namely: the Airport line; the Beenleigh line; the Caboolture line; the Cleveland line; the Doomben line; the Exhibition line; the Ferny Grove line; the Ipswich/Rosewood line; the Redcliffe Peninsula line; the Shorncliffe line; and the Springfield line. The network extends to the Gold and Sunshine coasts, which are fully integrated into the network on the Gold Coast line and Sunshine Coast line. The Airtrain service which runs on the Airport line is jointly operated between the City of Brisbane and Brisbane Airport.

55 million passenger trips were taken across the network in 2018–19. Construction of the network began in 1865 and has been progressively expanded in the subsequent centuries. Electrification of the network was completed between 1979 and 1988. The Cross River Rail project includes a twin rail tunnel 5.9 kilometres which will pass under the Brisbane River to link two new railway stations at Albert Street in the CBD and Wooloongabba is under construction and scheduled to be completed in 2024.

Brisbane has a large dedicated bus rapid transit network, the Brisbane busway network. The network comprises the South East Busway, the Northern Busway and the Eastern Busway. The main network hubs are theKing George Square, Queen Street, and Roma Street busway stations. There are also numerous suburban bus routes operating throughout the metropolitan area, including the high-frequency Blue and Maroon CityGlider routes which run between Newstead and West End , and Ashgrove and Stones Corner respectively.

Transdev Brisbane Ferries operates three ferry services along the Brisbane River, CityCat, CityFerry and CityHopper. Brisbane's ferries, and particularly its catamaran CityCats, are considered iconic to the city.

The CityCat high-speed catamaran ferry service, popular with tourists and commuters, operates services along the Brisbane River between the University of Queensland and Northshore Hamilton, with wharves at UQ St Lucia, West End, Guyatt Park, Regatta, Milton, North Quay, South Bank, QUT Gardens Point, Riverside, Sydney Street, Mowbray Park, New Farm Park, Hawthorne, Bulimba, Teneriffe, Bretts Wharf, Apollo Road and Northshore Hamilton. It is located north-east of the city centre on Moreton Bay and provides domestic and international passenger services. In the 2017, Brisbane Airport handled over 23 million passengers.

The airport is an airline hub for Qantas, Virgin Australia, Jetstar, Tigerair Australia as well as a number of minor and freight airlines. The airport is served by the Airtrain service which runs on the Airport line, providing a direct service to the CBD. Archerfield Airport in Brisbane's southern suburbs and Redcliffe Airport on the Redcliffe Peninsula serve Brisbane as general aviation airports. Brisbane is also served by other major airports in South East Queensland, including Gold Coast Airport at Coolangatta, Sunshine Coast Airport at Marcoola and Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport at Wellcamp. The Port of Brisbane is located at the mouth of the Brisbane River on Moreton Bay and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, an artificial island created by land reclamation. It is the third busiest port in Australia for value of goods. The port is the endpoint of the main shipping channel across Moreton Bay which extends 90 kilometres north near Mooloolaba. The port has 29 operating berths including nine deep-water container berths and three deep-water bulk berths as well as 17 bulk and general cargo berths.

There are two cruise ship terminals in Brisbane. Portside Wharf at Hamilton is an international standard facility for cruise liners. Due to the height of the Gateway Bridge which must be passed to reacch the terminal, the wharf services small and medium-sized cruise ships. The Brisbane International Cruise Terminal at Luggage Point in Pinkenba is able to accommodate the largest cruise vessels in the world, and will be opened in 2020.

Brisbane is covered by Queensland Health's «Metro North» and «Metro South» health services. Within the greater Brisbane area there are eight major public hospitals, four major private hospitals, and numerous smaller public and private facilities.

Technology 

Brisbane’s innovative capabilities are grounded in competitive business, world-class research and development, a highly skilled workforce, and leading education institutions. At the heart of Brisbane’s innovation is its human capital – the people with the skills, knowledge and entrepreneurial know-how to transform ideas into products and services that will benefit businesses and the community, not only in Australia but the world. Along with our talented people, Brisbane boasts world-class infrastructure to support education, training, research and development activity, and an outstanding collaborative effort between the public and private sectors. The city’s innovation environment has global companies with headquarters in Brisbane, home-grown businesses that are export-oriented, and key knowledge precincts and research centres with world-wide reputations. The city also boasts a range of service providers offering technical expertise and training to support various industries. Brisbane’s liveability and continued growth ensures the attraction and retention of talent and investment to the city. Brisbane is home to a number of world-class universities including The University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, and Griffith University. These institutions are a significant asset to Brisbane’s knowledge economy and form the foundation of the city’s research capabilities.

From research to commercialisation, Brisbane’s research and development strengths are internationally recognised. Brisbane’s R&D ecosystem is categorised by strong collaboration between the public and private sectors, linkages with national and international research, world-class R&D infrastructure, and support from industry and all levels of government. As the commercial hub and driver of the Queensland economy, Brisbane – with its well-resourced and globally-connected research and development sector – leverages international investment to commercialise innovation in new life sciences / bio-technology, digital industries and clean technologies, serving a diversity of industries and markets, both in Australia and overseas.

Specific initiatives of the strategy include

-A new Digital Business Power-up Program to help more than 4000 businesses with face-to-face digital training and information forums and a further 30,000 people through web-based support tools per year.

-Launch of the Coderdojo program in city libraries to encourage hundreds of young people to learn how to master digital coding.

-Cyber City Program that is focused on a new «way-finder» system that integrates mobile digital technology with signs, maps and city venues, ready access to wi-fi services across the city, and continued improvements to connectivity, digital services, and data access across the city.

The Queensland life sciences industry employs more than 14,000 people, invests $650 million in research and development, and has an estimated combined income of $4.4 billion . Queensland has niche strengths in agriscience, biocommodities, and tropical health. Substantial investments are developing these strengths to help new industries and to foster innovation in traditional industries, positioning Brisbane and Queensland as an international centre of excellence for science and technology. Brisbane’s Princess Alexandra Hospital campus brings together some of Queensland’s leading institutes such as the Translational Research Institute and the Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence.

Consistent with global trends, the most significant growth in commercialised clean tech activities in Brisbane is related to the energy sector. There has been significant investment in renewable energy projects in recent years and this is being encouraged and assisted by government policies to attract investment in the sector by local, national and international firms. Carbon capture and storage pilot projects, funded by both industry and government, are being undertaken in Brisbane. At the same time, Queensland’s strong growth in the energy and resources sector has resulted in increased demand for remote energy, waste and water treatment technologies.

Outside of the energy sector, there is a range of research activity and small innovative clean tech and bio-tech firms associated with the dynamic, largely university-based research sector in Queensland. Brisbane has access to specialised knowledge and skilled workforce through premium research and development institutes at world-renowned local universities.

With an economy valued at $135 billion, Brisbane is the economic hub and driver of the Queensland economy. Brisbane’s economy is forecast to grow by more than 60 per cent to $217 billion by 2031, driving demand for investment in new technologies that will support productive new knowledge-based industries that are competitive on the world stage . Brisbane is the closest major Australian east coast capital city to Asia, making the city an ideal position for initial investment in the Asia Pacific region. Cost advantages gained from this close proximity to Asia, supported by world-class logistics infrastructure through Brisbane Airport and the Port of Brisbane, mean Brisbane is perfectly placed as a base for clean-tech manufacturing.Brisbane has access to specialised knowledge and a skilled workforce through premium research and development institutes at world-renowned local universities and higher education institutions. These institutions supply the stream of talent needed for large-scale commercialisation and manufacturing operations in the city. Queensland has heavy reserves of coal and gas, which has strongly positioned the state as a world leader in clean coal technology. The sugarcane industry and other agricultural crops also equip the state for innovation in biomass and biofuels, including ethanol production and use.Brisbane’s subtropical climate, combined with its robust economy, strong population growth, and large and growing energy market, make it an ideal location for a strong renewable energy industry. Brisbane’s climate is especially conducive to innovation in solar energy production and Brisbane is located in a region with an abundance of renewable energy resources including geothermal, bioenergy, wind, hydro, wave, and tidal.Brisbane City Council’s Living in Brisbane 2031 vision aims to ensure Brisbane is carbon-neutral by 2031. Guided by sustainability-focused governments and world-renowned universities and research institutions, Brisbane is evolving as a leader in the innovation of clean technologies.Brisbane’s institutions, businesses and government all embrace and support the concept of a digital economy. Digital Brisbane is a hub to seed and nurture a thriving digital economy, identifying profitable business opportunities and helping to create a better lifestyle for locals.

Social Wellness and Human Resources

Brisbane is a thriving multicultural hub with a population of 2.27 million, making it the third-largest city in Australia. It is also one of the fastest-growing cities in Australia. An inner-city population density less than Sydney and Melbourne keeps accommodation affordable around the city's major education precincts and provides students and residents with plenty of open space to enjoy. The multicultural and linguistically diverse population has nearly one third of residents born overseas and 18% speaking a language other than English at home. This means you'll be able to meet and make friends with students not just from Australia, but from all over the world.

Brisbane's Greater Capital City Statistical Area includes the Local Government Areas of City of Brisbane, City of Ipswich, Moreton Bay Region, Logan City and Redland City, as well as parts of Lockyer Valley Region, Scenic Rim Region and Somerset Region, which form a continuous metropolitan area. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,514,184 as of June 2019, making it the third largest city in Australia. The 2016 census showed that 32.2% of Brisbane's inhabitants were born overseas and 50.9% of inhabitants had at least one parent born overseas. Brisbane has the 26th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Of inhabitants born outside of Australia, the four most prevalent countries of birth were New Zealand, England, Mainland China, and India.Brisbane has the largest New Zealand and Taiwanese-born populations of any city in Australia.

The Vietnamese-born are the largest immigrant group in Inala, Darra, Durack, Willawong, Richlands and Doolandella. The Indian-born are the largest immigrant group in Chermside. 2.4% of the population, or 54,158 people, identified as Indigenous Australians in 2016.

At the 2016 census, 78% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin , Vietnamese , Cantonese , Spanish , Hindi , Samoan , Korean and Punjabi At the 2016 census, the most commonly cited religious affiliations was 'No religion' .Brisbane's most popular religion at the 2016 census was Christianity, and the most popular denomonations were Catholicism and Anglicanism . Other Christian denominations including Uniting Church, Baptists, Pentecostalism, Lutheranism and Eastern Orthodox made up 18.8% of the population. All Christian demoninations totalled 53.6% of the population. Brisbane's CBD is home to two cathedrals – St John's and St Stephen's . The most popular non-Christian religions at the 2016 census were Buddhist , Muslim and Hindu .

Brisbane is home to several art galleries, the largest of which are the Queensland Art Gallery and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art , which is the largest modern art gallery in Australia. Dramatic and musical theatre performances are held at the multiple large theatres located at Queensland Performing Arts Centre . The Brisbane Powerhouse in New Farm and the Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts in Fortitude Valley also feature diverse programs featuring exhibitions and festivals of visual art, music and dance. Brisbane is also home to numerous small theatres including the Brisbane Arts Theatre in Petrie Terrace, the La Boite Theatre Company which performs at the Roundhouse Theatre at Kelvin Grove, the Twelfth Night Theatre at Bowen Hills, the Metro Arts Theatre in Edward Street, and the Queensland Theatre Company's Bille Brown Theatre in West End.

The Queensland Performing Arts Centre at South Bank, consists of the Lyric Theatre, the Concert Hall, the Cremorne Theatre and the Playhouse Theatre and is home to the Queensland Ballet, Opera Queensland, the Queensland Theatre Company, and the Queensland Symphony Orchestra. The Queensland Conservatorium, a musical conservatorium in which professional music companies and conservatorium students also stage performances, is located within the South Bank Parklands. Numerous choirs present performances across the city annually. These choirs include the Brisbane Chorale, Queensland Choir, Brisbane Chamber Choir, Canticum Chamber Choir, Brisbane Concert Choir, Imogen Children's Chorale and Brisbane Birralee Voices.

Brisbane has maintained a constantly evolving live music scene, producing acts spanning genres including punk , indie rock, electronic music, experimental music, noise rock, metal and post-punk. Brisbane's live music history is often intertwined with social unrest and authoritarian politics, as retold by journalist Andrew Stafford in Pig City: From The Saints to Savage Garden, Radical Brisbane: An Unruly History, edited by academics Raymond Evans and Carole Ferrier, and BNE – The Definitive Archive: Brisbane Independent Electronic Music Production 1979–2014, produced by record label director Dennis Remmer. There are also popular entertainment pubs and clubs within both the City and Fortitude Valley. The Brisbane Entertainment Centre at Boondall is an arena which hosts many musical concerts, with some of the largest being held at Lang Park.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brisbane

https://www.britannica.com/place/Brisbane

https://www.visitbrisbane.com.au/information/articles/destinations/things-you-did-not-know?sc_lang=en-au

https://www.choosebrisbane.com.au/study/why-choose-brisbane/facts-and-figures?sc_lang=en-au

https://www.remotetraveler.com/brisbane-australia/

http://www.choosebrisbane.com.au/invest/why-brisbane/economic-overview?sc_lang=en-au

http://www.choosebrisbane.com.au/corporate/news-centre/news/startups-set-to-soar-at-new-brisbane-innovation-hub?sc_lang=en-au

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