Hyderabad /ˈhaɪdərəbɑːd/ is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million, with about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth-most populous city and sixth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. In 1687 the city was annexed by the Mughals. As the capital of the princely state of Hyderabad, the city housed the British Residency and cantonment until Indian independence in 1947.
Hyderabad City became joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end in 2025. Since 1956, the city has hosted the winter office of the President of India. The amalgamation of local and migrated artisans had originated a distinctive culture, and the city emerged as the foremost centre of oriental culture. Through its cuisine, the city is listed as a UNESCO creative city of gastronomy.
Data and Facts
- Area: 217 Sq Km.
- Languages Spoken: Urdu, Hindi, Telugu and English.
- Airport: The airport at Shamshabad, 22Km south of the Hyderabad city.
- Religion: About 50% of the population consists of Muslims; there are Hindus and Sikhs Exports: Software, Basmati rice and spices, medical transcription and oil exports.
- Industries: Electrical fans, cooling systems, software industries, jewellers, pharmaceuticals and automotive industries.
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation oversees the civic infrastructure of the city's 30 «circles», which together encompass 150 municipal wards. The HMDA is an apolitical urban planning agency that covers the GHMC and its suburbs, extending to 54 mandals in five districts encircling the city. It coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban municipalities and manages the administration of bodies such as the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board. As the seat of the government of Telangana, Hyderabad is home to the state's legislature, secretariat and high court, as well as various local government agencies.
The Lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the jurisdiction of the High Court.
A GHMC sweeper cleaning the Tank Bund Road
As of October 2014, there were 15 fire stations in the city, operated by the Telangana State Disaster and Fire Response Department. The government-owned India Post has five head post offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad, which are complemented by private courier services.
Hyderabad produces around 4,500 tonnes of solid waste daily, which is transported from collection units in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite in Jawaharnagar. The city's «VIP areas», the Assembly building, Secretariat, and Telangana chief minister's office, have particularly low air quality index ratings, suffering from high levels of PM2.5's. Groundwater around Hyderabad, which has a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times higher than is desirable, is the main source of drinking water but the increasing population and consequent increase in demand has led to a decline in not only groundwater but also river and lake levels. This shortage is further exacerbated by inadequately treated effluent discharged from industrial treatment plants polluting the water sources of the city.
The Commissionerate of Health and Family Welfare is responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring of all facilities related to health and preventive services.
The Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. Until the 19th century Hyderabad was known for the pearl industry and was nicknamed the «City of Pearls», and was the only Golconda Diamonds trading centre in the world. Many of the city's historical and traditional bazaars remain open. Since the 1990s, the city has emerged as an Indian hub of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology.
Recent estimates of the economy of Hyderabad's metropolitan area have ranged from $40 billion to $74 billion, and have ranked it either fifth- or sixth- most productive metro area of India. Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the gross domestic product, tax and other revenues, of Telangana, and the sixth-largest deposit centre and fourth largest credit centre nationwide, as ranked by the Reserve Bank of India in June 2012. As of 2006, the largest employers in the city were the governments of Andhra Pradesh and India. According to a 2005 survey, 77% of males and 19% of females in the city were employed.
The service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this sector. The establishment of Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited , a public sector undertaking, in 1961 was followed over the decades by many national and global companies opening manufacturing and research facilities in the city. As of 2010, the city manufactured one-third of India's bulk drugs and 16% of biotechnology products, contributing to its reputation as «India's pharmaceutical capital» and the «Genome Valley of India». Hyderabad is a global centre of information technology, for which it is known as Cyberabad.
As of 2013, it contributed 15% of India's and 98% of Andhra Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors and 22% of NASSCOM's total membership is from the city. The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure, prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad. Like the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the labour force. Those involved in the informal economy constitute a major portion of the urban poor.
The formation of special economic zones and HITECH City dedicated to information technology have encouraged leading multinationals to set up operations in Hyderabad.
The state government of Telangana has done much to support the development and growth of the IT industry in Hyderabad. It provides support for land allocations and establishing a single office, ensures continuous power and water supply, access to a rich talent pool, and offers attractive incentive packages to the IT industry.
Some of the common incentives available to companies in the industry include:
- Support in allotment of government land;
- Cost reimbursement of up to 10% of retrofitting cost of INR 10 lakhs (US $14,517), whichever is less, to IT companies to conduct retrofitting study and implement the energy efficiency equipment;
- 100% reimbursement of stamp duty, transfer duty and registration fee paid by IT industry and communication technology industry companies on sale or lease deeds on the first transaction, and 50%on sale or lease deeds on the second transaction (the reimbursement of the registration cost is not applicable for megaprojects); and
- 50%reimbursement of the cost of filing patents to the companies having their headquarters in Telangana, subject to a limit of INR 2 lakhs (US $2,903).
There are additional incentives available for mega projects, start-up companies, SMEs and mid-scale companies, IT product or R&D companies, companies offering engineering services, women entrepreneurs, and corporate social responsibility.
As of 2018, the most commonly used forms of medium-distance transport in Hyderabad include government-owned services such as light railways and buses, as well as privately operated taxis and auto-rickshaws. These altogether serve 3.5 million passengers daily. Bus services operate from the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city centre with a fleet of 3800 buses serving 3.3 million passengers. Complementing these government services are minibus routes operated by Setwin .
As of 2018, there are over 5.3 million vehicles operating in the city, of which 4.3 million are two-wheelers and 1.04 million four-wheelers. Maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h for light commercial vehicles and buses. Five state highways, 225 km SH-1 links Hyderabad, to Ramagundam, SH-2, SH-4, and SH-6, either starting from or passing through, Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has emerged as a new IT hub, giving stiff competition to Bengaluru for the country’s top IT destination.
In the 2018-19 financial year, the export of IT products from Hyderabad touched a new high of INR 1.09 lakh crores (US 415.82 billion), growing 17%, which is nearly double the country’s 9% growth rate.
While the absorption rate of commercial space by the IT industry has remained considerably lower than Bengaluru, the city’s IT sector continues to grow sustainably backed by the availability of proper infrastructure, skilled manpower, presence of a large number of technical education institutions, and a proactive local government.
Social Wellness and Human Resources
Initially, Hyderabad was the location of two colleges of the University of Madras. In 1918 the nizam established Osmania University, and it is now one of the best universities in India. The University of Hyderabad was established in 1974. An agricultural university and a number of advanced research and training institutes are also located there, as are several nongovernmental institutions, notably the American Studies Research Centre.
The city has many public and private cultural organizations, such as state-sponsored dramatic, literary, and fine arts academies. The public auditorium Ravindra Bharati provides a venue for dance and music festivals. There are several notable museums, including the Salar Jung Museum, which has a unique collection of rare pieces, including jade, jewellery, paintings, and furniture.
The public gardens provide the main recreational facilities. Many parks and the large parade grounds in Secunderabad offer space for play and relaxation. The zoological gardens and the university’s botanical gardens are popular picnic spots. Hyderabad is reputed for its football and cricket and a racecourse.