Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
Top Chinese University Zhejiang ZJU response to Covid-19 Coronavirus
"Faced with an unknown virus, sharing and collaboration are the best remedy. The publication of this Handbook is one of the best ways to mark the courage and wisdom our healthcare workers have demonstrated over the past two months. Thanks to all those who have contributed to this Handbook, sharing the invaluable experience with healthcare colleagues around the world while saving the lives of patients. Thanks to the support from healthcare colleagues in China who have provided experience that inspires and motivates us. Thanks to Jack Ma Foundation for initiating this program, and to AliHealth for the technical support, making this Handbook possible to support the fight against the epidemic. The Handbook is available to everyone for free. However, due to the limited time, there might be some errors and defects. Your feedback and advice are highly welcomed! Prof. Tingbo LIANG Editor-in-Chief of the Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment Chairman of The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
The deadly Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak presents a host of challenges for different sectors of our cities, world and society. We are in an unprecedented global war, and mankind is facing the same enemy, the novel infectious coronavirus. And the first battlefield is the helathcare hospital where our soldiers are the medical workers. To ensure that this war can be won, we must first make sure that our medical staff is guaranteed sufficient resources, including experience and technologies. Also, we need to make sure that the hospital is the battleground where we eliminate the virus, not where the virus defeats us. University campuses with their congregate settings are considered particularly susceptible to contagion. As China continues to battle the epidemic, universities across the country have followed public health guidance to shut campuses.
Zhejiang University School of Medicine is one of the leading chinese universities and one of the first modern medical schools in China, and the first medical school combined with teaching hospital.
According to wikipedia: ZJU Med has mainly two preexistences. The first one was Zhejiang Medical School (Traditional Chinese: 浙江醫學專門學校; Simplified Chinese: 浙江医学专门学校), which was founded in June 1911 (some resources mention as on 1 June 1912), by Han Qing-quan; this school was one of the first medical school in China, and later it was renamed for several times, such as the mostly-common-known Zhejiang Provincial College of Medicine (Traditional Chinese: 浙江省立醫學院; Simplified Chinese: 浙江省立医学院). The second root of ZJU Med was the National Chekiang University School of Medicine (Traditional Chinese: 國立浙江大學醫學院; Simplified Chinese: 国立浙江大学医学院; Chekiang is the old spelling/romanization for Zhejiang) which was founded in August 1945.
In February 1952, the Zhejiang Provincial College of Medicine and the National Chekiang University School of Medicine were merged to form Zhejiang Medical College (Traditional Chinese: 浙江醫學院; Simplified Chinese: 浙江医学院). In April 1964, Zhejiang Medical College was promoted to Zhejiang Medical University (Traditional Chinese: 浙江醫科大學; Simplified Chinese: 浙江医科大学).
In 1998, the four separated universities (which shared the same root: National Chekiang University), namely Hangzhou University, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Agricultural University, and Zhejiang Medical University were reunified to establish the new Zhejiang University, and the faculty of Zhejiang Medical University became the medical faculty of the new Zhejiang University after this reunification.
The old campus of ZJU Med was just next to the famous West Lake, called Hubin Campus of Zhejiang University. The new or present medical campus is ZijinGang Campus, which is currently the main campus of Zhejiang University.
In order to win this inevitable battle and fight against COVID-19, we must work together and share our experiences around the world. The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine http://www.cmm.zju.edu.cn/cmmenglish/ has treated 104 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the past 50 days, and their experts wrote real treatment experience night and day, and quickly published this Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment, expecting to share their invaluable practical advice and references with medical staff around the world. This handbook compared and analyzed the experience of other experts in China, and provides good reference to key departments such as hospital infection management, nursing, and outpatient clinics. This handbook provides comprehensive guidelines and best practices by China's top experts for coping with COVID-19.
This handbook, provided by the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, describes how organizations can minimize the cost while maximizing the effect of measures to manage and control the coronavirus outbreak. The handbook also discusses why hospitals and other healthcare institutions should have command centers when encountering a large-scale emergency in the context of COVID-19.
Technical strategies for addressing issues during emergencies.
Treatment methods to treat the critically ill.
Efficient clinical decision-making support.
Best practices for key departments like inflection management and outpatient clinics.
Date published - 18 Mar 2020
Type - Tools, guidelines and methodologies
Keywords: Epidemics & pandemics, Response and recovery
Responding to such disruption, many are shifting to online instruction so that students can keep up their studies. Zhejiang University (ZJU), a comprehensive research university, spanning seven sites in east China’s Zhejiang province, has proactively joined what might be the world’s largest remote learning experiment.
Zhejiang University School of Medicine COVID-19 Related Personal Protection Management
Online teaching strategy
To minimize the impact of the outbreak, ZJU officially started online teaching on 24 February in line with the original term calendar. Contingency teaching covers all ZJU students, including international students, and many courses are open to learners worldwide.
Two weeks into the “experiment”, the university was offering more than 5,000 courses to both undergraduate and graduate students. The course hub “Learning at ZJU” attracted 570,000 visits, and “DingTalk ZJU”, a live streaming app co-developed by Alibaba, recorded a total audience of 300,000. Meanwhile, around 2,500 graduate students at the university are expected to defend their theses in spring. Now they can apply for an online oral defence in order to graduate as planned.
Alongside extensive offerings, the quality of and equality in education are the other critical issues that warrant our attention. Although online teaching is no longer a novelty, we are aware that not all faculty members are equally adept at harnessing related technology and managing virtual classrooms. As part of the quality assurance process, ZJU organized a series of training sessions in mid-February for 3,670 faculty members. An instructor of one of our most popular MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) courses was invited to demonstrate how he adapted pedagogy to online tuition and forged a strong sense of community.
Student success is what online teaching efforts are all about. It is, therefore, crucial to ensure no one is left out. Seeking to bridge the digital divide, since January ZJU has funded access to online learning for more than 1,000 disadvantaged students. The university has also negotiated deals with several network providers to subsidize the data plans of its faculty and students.
Enhance preparedness by embracing digital technology
ZJU sees Covid-19 as an intensive test of its organizational agility. It would be impossible to pull off any alternative teaching plan without concerted action by faculty and support staff. Furthermore, given a limited window of time, the success rate is also contingent on whether there has been adequate openness to new technology and investment in infrastructure.
Drawing on its traditional strength in ICT, ZJU started early in creating a smart campus. In 2017, the “ZJU Online” project was launched which encompassed five components: administrative services, online education, academic resources, information bulletins and personal profiles. After two years, an upgraded “Learning at ZJU” platform, a significant development of the project, was put into use in November 2019.
In 2018, the university began to build a wide spectrum of smart classrooms, equipped with new functions such as audio recognition and simultaneous interpreting. In recent weeks, a total of 200 smart classrooms have been quickly put in place for teachers to shoot video courses or live stream their classes.
The crisis represents an unprecedented occasion for us and our peers in China to evaluate the technical preparedness for new changes. It has also galvanized us into reflection and action, for instance, regarding how we can tap into disruptive technologies such as mixed reality, data science and artificial intelligence to better serve the needs of education and address latent disruptors like Covid-19.
Rising to future challenges with an innovation mindset is more critical than ever. Research universities are now th emost important element for this new direction. They are known for their contributions to human welfare through education, research and services but need to align their efforts with society, cities. While bracing for unpredictable challenges, it is becoming a strategic imperative for research universities to transform themselves into innovation-driven institutions with a greater level of excellence.
Zhejiang University (ZJU) response to COVID-19
The innovation-driven university transcends the conventional model of a comprehensive research university on many fronts. For example, it places a greater emphasis on systematic development, internal/external interaction and governance capacity. In the context of the coronavirus outbreak, we are impelled to think forward and look at some of the important steps universities can take.
In an era of scientific and industrial revolutions, education is undergoing rapid changes. Information technology and cognitive science are driving the transition from education 1.0 to learning 2.0. Meanwhile, the concept of “whole-person education” is gaining momentum worldwide and globalization is turning campuses into international crossroads.
Universities need to adapt to this new environment by advocating for human-machine symbiosis, teacher-student interaction, life-long learning and ubiquitous learning. A mix of online and face-to-face teaching is one example of how universities can diversify their provision beyond bricks and mortar. The priorities may include general education, which aims at well-rounded development of students; and open-loop education, featuring co-creation and resource convergence.
One-stop “Research at ZJU” platform allowing scientists and students to collaborate online despite the disruption caused by the epidemic
In the same vein, the global innovation landscape is reshaped at a faster speed. Open innovation is taking place online through synergies regardless of time constraints or geographical boundaries. In early March, ZJU announced the one-stop “Research at ZJU” platform allowing scientists and students to collaborate online despite the disruption caused by the epidemic.
The platform is part of our ongoing efforts to create an innovation system, which is instrumental in sustaining the vitality of research universities. Internally, this system consists of disciplines, faculty, teaching and research; externally, it engages multiple stakeholders including talent, industry, alumni and public institutions on a global scale. Through an open-loop, open-source and open-system approach, the internal elements and external stakeholders can be strongly connected.
Last but not least, research universities are critical now more than ever and should develop strategic thinking to achieve constant innovation and become more resilient. It comes down to the following aspects: holistic thinking, practical thinking and bottom-line thinking, as well as an excellence-oriented and open approach to work. In times of crisis, keeping the big picture in mind and maintaining smooth coordination among different units will enable a university to respond quickly and achieve shared goals. As much as we prepare for the worst, we will try our best to turn a crisis into an opportunity too.
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